Generation Z or iGeneration – after 1997 We are in the midst of four distinct generations: Baby Boomers (born 1946-64), Generation X (1965-79), Net Generation (1980-89) and the new iGeneration (born in the 1990s and beyond). The “i” designation represents the “individualized” nature of their media. The word “communicate” means to talk face-to-face or on the phone but until recently, the Net Generation and the iGeneration have turned this concept of communication upside down. Nowadays, it’s all about texting, IMing, Facebook texting, Skyping; pretty much anything but talking on the phone. Sure that the Net Generation was the early adopters of the Internet but the iGeneration are of a different breed. They know no other world than of the Web, texting and social networking. They rather go online when they could sit and chat with their grandparents. They live in their own bedroom, where new technologies appear and penetrate society in months rather than years. Technology for this generation is not a tool, but a part of life.
According to Steve Downes, Knowledge is subsymbolic Knowledge is distributed Knowledge is interconnected Knowledge is personal Knowledge is an emergent phenomenon Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
VLE is most commonly referred to as the “Personal Learning Environment” or PLE. The idea behind the PLE is that the management of learning migrates from the institution to the learner.
The open source movement is also impressive in higher education. Open source and higher education have common philosophy and value. Creating and sharing knowledge for public good is a key part of the mission of colleges and universities, and a core part of the philosophy driving open source software. For the past decade, college and universities have begun to produce enterprise open source applications like course management systems and electronic portfolios that compete directly with their proprietary counterparts. These e-learning applications are leading a movement in higher education from proprietary software toward open source (Coppola & Neelley, 2004). MIT’s OpenCourseWare project - Plan to make the primary materials for nearly all of 2,000 of its courses available for the Web. Alfred Prufrock, MIT Professor: “ We must create open knowledge systems as the new framework for teaching and learning…we see OCW as opening a new door to the powerful, democratizing, and transforming power of education.” Open Educational Resources (OER) - educational materials and resources offered freely and openly for anyone to use - are becoming increasingly important for education in Africa. Open Source Curriculum and Lesson Plans. OER are teaching, learning and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials or techniques used to support access to knowledge. OpenCourseWare Consortium : The OpenCourseWare Consortium is a by-product of MIT's OER initiative. This group now includes members from 16 countries, not including the 14 additional affiliate organizations in its fold. Of these, China is the largest participant with 30 colleges that are active in OpenCourseWare Consortium programs under the organizational group CORE (China Open Resources for Education). An OpenCourseWare is a free and open digital publication of high quality educational materials, organized as courses. The OpenCourseWare Consortium is a collaboration of more than 100 higher education institutions and associated organizations from around the world creating a broad and deep body of open educational content using a shared model. The mission of the OpenCourseWare Consortium is to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware. Project Gutenberg : This open access project seems to fade in comparison to the updated presence provided by Google Scholar Beta . However, Project Gutenberg — launched in 1971 by Michael Hart — provides the first example of a free library project and the first producer of free electronic books. And, despite the fact that flashier faces have moved into this arena, Project Gutenberg still enjoys over two million downloads per month. The Internet Archive also shores this category as an example of an open access resource. This nonprofit online library includes texts, audio, moving images, and software as well as archived Web pages in their collections. Like a paper library, this archive provides open access to researchers, historians, scholars, and the general public.
Network as platform – Web Operating System and Web-based applications Encourage users to add value to the application as they use it A rich, interactive, user-friendly interface Convergence of media – Web, audio, and video Social Web – allow users to share their opinions, experiences, and perspectives
Wikipedia is running MediaWiki version 1.16alpha-wmf(r59858). It has 3,206,947 articles, and 19,571,428 pages in total. There have been 369,814,233 edits. There are 867,234 uploaded files. There are 11,768,320 registered users, including 1,717 administrators . This information is correct as of 12:23 on February 27, 2010. Since its creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference web sites , attracting nearly 68 million visitors monthly as of January 2010. There are more than 91,000 active contributors working on more than 15,000,000 articles in more than 270 languages . As of today, there are 3,206,947 articles in English . Every day, hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the world collectively make tens of thousands of edits and create thousands of new articles to augment the knowledge held by the Wikipedia encyclopedia. (See also: Wikipedia:Statistics .)
5 million unique residents 1,5 million logged in the last 60 days ≈ 40 000 users in-world at any time 90 000 premium residents Linden Lab®, creator of the virtual world Second Life®, today announced that Second Life Residents have transacted the equivalent of more than one billion US dollars with each other while spending more than one billion hours in Second Life. http://lindenlab.com/pressroom/releases/22_09_09
The technologies featured in the 2008 Horizon Report. These 6 areas will have significant impact on college and university campuses within the next five years. The New Media Consortium (NMC) and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) jointly produced Horizon Report describes six areas of emerging technology that will have significant impact on higher education within three adoption horizons over the next one to five years. The 2008 report focuses on the following topics; * Grassroots Video * Collaboration Webs * Mobile Broadband * Data Mashups * Collective Intelligence * Social Operating Systems New Media Consortium (NMC)’s Horizon Project, a five-year qualitative research effort that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within learning-focused organizations. The 2008 Horizon Report, the fifth in this annual series, is produced as a collaboration between the NMC and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI), an EDUCAUSE program. Taken as a set, our research indicates that all six of these technologies will significantly impact the choices of learning-focused organizations within the next five years. ■ Grassroots Video. Virtually anyone can capture, edit, and share short video clips, using inexpensive equipment (such as a cell phone) and free or nearly free software. Video sharing sites continue to grow at some of the most prodigious rates on the Internet; it is very common now to find news clips, tutorials, and informative videos listed alongside the music videos and the raft of personal content that dominated these sites when they first appeared. What used to be difficult and expensive, and often required special servers and content distribution networks, now has become something anyone can do easily for almost nothing. Hosting services handle encoding, infrastructure, searching, and more, leaving only the content for the producer to worry about. Custom branding has allowed institutions to even have their own special presence within these networks, and will fuel rapid growth among learning-focused organizations who want their content to be where the viewers are. ■ Collaboration Webs. Collaboration no longer calls for expensive equipment and specialized expertise. The newest tools for collaborative work are small, flexible, and free, and require no installation. Colleagues simply open their web browsers and they are able to edit group documents, hold online meetings, swap information and data, and collaborate in any number of ways without ever leaving their desks. Open programming interfaces allow users to author tools that they need and easily tailor them to their requirements, then share them with others. ■ Mobile Broadband. Each year, more than a billion new mobile devices are manufactured1— or a new phone for every six people on the planet. In this market, innovation is unfolding at an unprecedented pace. Capabilities are increasing rapidly, and prices are becoming ever more affordable. Indeed, mobiles are quickly becoming the most affordable portable platform for staying networked on the go. New displays and interfaces make it possible to use mobiles to access almost any Internet content—content that can be delivered over either a broadband cellular network or a local wireless network. ■ Data Mashups. Mashups—custom applications where combinations of data from different sources are “mashed up” into a single tool— offer new ways to look at and interact with datasets. The availability of large amounts of data (from search patterns, say, or real estate sales or Flickr photo tags) is converging with the development of open programming interfaces for social networking, mapping, and other tools. This in turn is opening the doors to hundreds of data mashups that will transform the way we understand and represent information. ■ Collective Intelligence. The kind of knowledge and understanding that emerges from large groups of people is collective intelligence. In the coming years, we will see educational applications for both explicit collective intelligence—evidenced in projects like the Wikipedia and in community tagging—and implicit collective intelligence, or data gathered from the repeated activities of numbers of people, including search patterns, cell phone locations over time, geocoded digital photographs, and other data that are passively obtained. Data mashups will tap into information generated by collective intelligence to expand our understanding of ourselves and the technologically-mediated world we inhabit. ■ Social Operating Systems. The essential ingredient of next generation social networking, social operating systems, is that they will base the organization of the network around people, rather than around content. This simple conceptual shift promises profound implications for the academy, and for the ways in which we think about knowledge and learning. Social operating systems will support whole new categories of applications that weave through the implicit connections and clues we leave everywhere as we go about our lives, and use them to organize our work and our thinking around the people we know. As might be expected when studying emerging phenomena over time, some of these topics are related to, or outgrowths of, ones featured in previous editions of the Horizon Report. 1 Jaques, Robert. (2007). One Billion Mobile Phones Shipped in 2006. Computing, January 26, 2007. Retrieved December 2007, from www.computing.co.uk/2173516. The areas of emerging technology cited for 2009 are : Mobiles (i.e., mobile devices) Cloud computing Geo-everything (i.e., geo-tagging) The personal web Semantic-aware applications Smart objects
Definition of Collective Intelligence it refers to the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and integration through collaboration and innovation .
Top 90 sites of new outlets, 11 are blogs
E-Learning 1.0 top down and one way Components – LMS, courseware, authoring tool E-Learning 2.0 bottom up, learner driven, peer learning Blogs, podcast, wikis, social bookmarking, mash-ups, social networking tools
VLE is most commonly referred to as the “Personal Learning Environment” or PLE. The idea behind the PLE is that the management of learning migrates from the institution to the learner. As the diagram, the PLE connects to a number of remote services, some that specialize in learning and some that do not. Access to learning becomes access to the resources and services offered by these remote services. PLE allows the learner not only to consume learning resources, but to produce them as well. Learning therefore evolves from being a transfer of content and knowledge to the production of content and knowledge.
Malinka Ivanova PhD eLearning 1.0 Ecosystem and eLearning 2.0 Ecosystem. http://mivanova.blogspot.com/2007/11/elearning-10-ecosystem-and-elearning-20.html eLearning is a strategy for learning that employs a wide range of technologies, tools and systems to support increase knowledge and improve skills at times and on terms defined by each learner. eLearning Ecosystem is defined as learning communities with learners and educators in different roles, interacting with each other to perform learning or support activities, using eLearning environment. eLearning 1.0 Ecosystem includes the excellent integration of component sets for course planning, creating, managing and storing, learner activities managing and monitoring, knowledge creation and management, integration with other back-office systems existing in the organization. In this ecosystem the learners in the most cases are just knowledge consumers and they are not able to modify its learning paths and learning content. eLearning 2.0 focuses on collaborative and open learning techniques, where learners are not in the end of the learning chain, they actively participate in the learning process as authors, co-authors and contributors of knowledge, whose products are based on collective intelligence. eLearning 2.0 Ecosystem captures the learning space as space for personal activities and for collaboration and communication with others of learning communities.
Mostly free Wikis - Wikipedia Blogs – Blogger and Wordpress Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) – www.lamsinternational.com or Moodle Virtual classrooms – dimdim, WiZiQ Podcasts – iTunes University RSS Mash-ups Content authoring – courselab.com and www.exelearning.org Social bookmarking – diigo and delicious Social learning networks – ning, facebook, elgg Personal learning spaces – www.netvibes.com, www.pageflakes.com, and www.google.com/ig Virtual social worlds – second life Open learning content – Open courseware consortium, youTube Edu, iTune U, Academic Earth.
Dr. Steve Yuen, Integrating Social Networking Technology into Online Teaching and Learning, 2010 Creating Futures Through Technology Pre-Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi, March 3, 2010
Collective Intelligence and E-Learning 2.0
Collective Intelligence and E-Learning 2.0 Steve C. Yuen, Ph.D. Professor The University of Southern Mississippi E-mail: Steve.Yuen@usm.edu Creating Futures Through Technology Pre-Conference March 3, 2010, Biloxi, Mississippi
Current Developments <ul><li>Information explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Net generation and iGeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centered design </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Open source, open education </li></ul><ul><li>New learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul>
The Top 10 In-Demand Jobs in 2010 Didn’t Exist in 2004 - Former Secretary of Education, Richard Riley Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
There are over 31 billion searches performed on Google each month. In 2006, this number is 2.7 billion . Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video. Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
The first commercial text message was sent in December 1992. Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
Today, the number of text messages sent and received every day exceeds the population of the planet. Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
Over 1 million new books are published worldwide every year . Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video. Did You Know 4.0? A YouTube Video.
It is estimated that 4 exabytes (that’s 4.0 x 10 18 ) of unique new information will be generated worldwide this year. That is more than the previous 5,000 years Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
Every 2 years the amount of new information DOUBLES Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
That means for a student starting a four-year technical or college degree . . . Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
Half of what they learn in their first year of study will be outdated by their third year of study. Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video.
Net Generation <ul><li>Born after 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Highly networked, interactive, and social </li></ul><ul><li>See technology as an essential part of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>1 st generation to be producers of content, not just consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer multi-tasking and quick, non-linear access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Are visually-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Rely heavily on communications technologies to access information and to carry out social and professional interactions. </li></ul>
iGeneration <ul><li>Generation Z or iGeneration – after 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>iGeneration has no OFF switch </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is a part of their DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Represent the “individualized” nature of their media </li></ul><ul><li>Early introduction to technology </li></ul><ul><li>Text me, don’t call me. Prefer texting and social networking for communicating than talk face-to-face or on the phone </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for immediacy </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is not a tool, but a part of life </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use technology to create a vast array of content </li></ul>Sources: Jayson, S. iGeneration has no off switch. USA Today. Feb 10, 2010 Nizram. Rise Of The iGeneration: Don’t Call Me, Text Me . Feb 8. 2010
Learner Centered Design <ul><li>Autonomy - Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence between teacher and learner </li></ul>Stephen Downes, E-Learning 2.0. National Research Council Canda, June 1, 2005
Source: http://www.elearnspace.org/media/ProfessionalDevelopment/player.html “… a form of knowledge and a pedagogy based on the idea that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections and that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks. “ – George Siemens <ul><li>Knowledge is distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is personal </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources </li></ul><ul><li> – Steven Downes </li></ul>
Virtual Learning Environment <ul><li>“ Personal Learning Environment” or PLE. </li></ul><ul><li>The personal learning center </li></ul><ul><li>A web of content </li></ul><ul><li>Give the learner greater control over their learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Managing their learning resources, the work they have produced, the activities they participate in </li></ul>Stephen Downes, E-Learning 2.0. National Research Council Canda, June 1, 2005
Open Source, Open Access <ul><li>Open source software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle, Sakai, ATutor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development & Community Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connexions, ELGG, Drupal, WordPress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox, Thunderbird, OpenOffice, Audacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>File sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Open content </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul>
Open Education, Open Learning <ul><li>MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) </li></ul><ul><li>Yale Open Courses </li></ul><ul><li>OER Commons, Curriki – Open Educational Resources </li></ul><ul><li>OpenCourseWare Consortium </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia – Online Encyclopedias </li></ul><ul><li>Project Gutenberg – Online Collections </li></ul>
New Learning Environments <ul><li>Multimedia explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>podcasts, vodcasts, YouTube, Slideshare, VoiceThread, Flick, and more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smartphones, iPhones, Google phones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 3D web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul></ul>Downes, S. (2007). E-learning 2.0 in Development
20 hours of video uploaded every minute onto YouTube Source: YouTube blog Aug 09
More video was uploaded to YouTube in the last 2 months than if ABC, CBS, and NBC had been airing new content (with no re-runs) 24/7/365 since 1948 (which was when ABC started broadcasting). Did You Know 4.0? A YouTube Video.
50 million non-spam tweets sent daily, or 600 tweets per second. Twitter Hits 50 Million Tweets Per Day; Still Dwarfed by Facebook & YouTube. Read Write Web. February 22, 2010
Flickr has 73 million visitors a month who upload 700 million photos Source: Yahoo Mar 09
Wikipedia launched in 2001. It attracts nearly 58 million visitors monthly and features over 15 million articles in more than 270 languages. Source: Wikipedia site. February 27, 2010.
1,300,000 blog posts daily. Source: Technorati , 2009
5 million unique residents 1.5 million logged in the last 60 days Source: Second Life
In 2008 , if you’re not on a social networking site, you’re not on the Internet . IAB Platform Status Report: User Generated Content, Social Media, and Advertising — An Overview (April 2008)
If Facebook were a country, only China and India have larger populations than Facebook. There are over 400 million registered users on Facebook . Fisch, K. & McLeod S. (2008). Did You Know 3.0? A YouTube Video. Infographic 2010: How Facebook Grew To 400 Million Users. http://bit.ly/a0eThz
Infographic 2010: How Facebook Grew To 400 Million Users. http://bit.ly/a0eThz
Web 2.0 allows learners to: <ul><li>create </li></ul>
Web 2.0 allows learners to: participate in a learning community
Key Emerging Technologies The Horizon Report, 2008 Edition, http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/CSD5320.pdf <ul><li>Horizon Report 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassroots Video – anyone can capture, edit, upload and share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration webs – create, edit, share, hold meetings in a browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile broadband – mobile devices with internet connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data mashups – custom applications combining data in new ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Intelligence – knowledge emerging from large groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Operating Systems – networks organized around people </li></ul></ul>Source: www.nmc.org/pdf/2008-Horizon-Report.pdf
Collective Intelligence <ul><li>Collective Intelligence refers to the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and integration through collaboration and innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence of aggregate community vs. the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Information-sharing by individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost creation of content by users </li></ul><ul><li>Increased access to user’s knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives for sharing (social recognition or monetary reward) </li></ul>Denise Caron, Collective Intelligence http://www.slideshare.net/dcaron/collective-intelligence-presentation
E-Learning 1.0 <ul><li>The early promise of e-learning has not been fully realized … (O’hear, 2006; Downes, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning content is provided by courseware authors, structured into courses by learning management system (LMS), and consumed by students </li></ul><ul><li>Employ the use of LMS that is often cumbersome and expensive – and which tends to be structured around courses, timetables, and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Often driven by needs of the institution rather than the individual learner </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional e-learning is not flexible and is not integrated with the Web </li></ul><ul><li>It is a monoculture, …. </li></ul>
E-Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Take a “small pieces, loosely joined” approach that combines the use of discrete but complementary Web 2.0 tools to support the creation of ad-hoc learning communities </li></ul><ul><li>Socially based software: collaborative, iterative, inclusive (discussion) = knowledge building & sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Include: blogs, Wikis, podcasts, social tagging and forums </li></ul>
E-Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Allow learners to create content and to collaborate with peers to form a learning network with distribution of content creation and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learner to easily access content through search, aggregation, and tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize on many sources of content aggregated together into learning experiences and utilize various tools including online references, courseware, knowledge management, collaboration and search </li></ul>
Kerres, M. Web 2.0 and its implications for learning in higher education. http://www.nuigalway.ie/celt/webcasts/MichaelKerres/MichaelKerres.ppt E-Learning 1.0 E-Learning 2.0 Learning environment = an isle in the net with contents and tools Learning environment = a portal to the net with contents and tools Teacher conveys all learning resources onto the “isle” Teacher provides guideposts to external resources, aggregates resources from the net Learner uses the materials and tools provided by the learning environment. Learner configures his/her personal (learning) work environment
E-Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Personal learning environment s </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on constructive activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning = generating content + communicating with people </li></ul><ul><li>The future of LMS </li></ul>Kerres, M. Web 2.0 and its implications for learning in higher education. http://www.nuigalway.ie/celt/webcasts/MichaelKerres/MichaelKerres.ppt
The End <ul><li>Questions or Comments? </li></ul>This presentation is available on the Web at: http://slideshare.yuen.us Follow me at: My Blog - http://blog.yuen.us My Tweets - http://twitter.yuen.us
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