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Pronouns – Words that take the place of nouns. They can stand for the person talking, the person being talked to, or someone or something that has already been named. Different pronouns are used when they replace subjects, direct objects, are used with reflexive verbs, used with “gustar” and gustar-like verbs, or come after a preposition. We have 5 pronoun charts
Prepositions – Words that show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence. Ex. To, on, of, from, with, in, at. In Spanish, there are certain pronouns that are used after prepositions.
Stem changing verb – A verb that has a vowel variation (or change) in the stem. In the present tense the change only occurs in “the boot” (not in 1 st and 2 nd person plural). Variations may be e – ie, e – i, o – ue, or o – u.
Stem changing verbs must be memorized. Stem changing verbs in the present are not always stem changing in another tense.
Direct Object Pronouns – Are pronouns that take the place of the direct object in a sentence. They answer the question “who?” or “what?” Ex. Mary bought a shirt. Shirt is the direct object because it answers the question “What did Mary buy?” To use the DOP you would say “Mary bought it .” It is the DOP. DOP must match the direct object.