Open Access: extending access to the research literature

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Presentation given at the UHMLG Spring Forum 2014 in London on 28th Feb 2014 …

Presentation given at the UHMLG Spring Forum 2014 in London on 28th Feb 2014

See http://www.swets.com/events/uhmlg-spring-forum-2014

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  • 1. om nc %u or d% oo %g on m es c om e :%c v s ec. rsp ac ic#Pe n% em pe cad O #A An ?% er ng da n% o m y### rr #Cu um# en or h tep ess#F r#S Acc 14 so es pen# b#20 of #O Fe Pr LG h# HM U t 28
  • 2. Who#am#I? occamstypewriter.org/scurry/ “the#world’s#most#generousMminded# and#amiable#OA#advocate”# Richard#Poynder,#Dec#2013
  • 3. Academic#Journals#were#a#great#idea…
  • 4. …but#the#web#changes#everything !4
  • 5. Anarchy#Policy#in#the#UK#M#2012 Rt%Hon%David%Wille@s%MP:% The#“funding#model#is#surely#going#to#have#to# change#even#beyond#the#welcome#transi.on#to# open#access#and#hybrid#journals#that’s#already# underway.#To%try%to%preserve%the%old%model%is%the% wrong%ba@le%to%fight.” Dame%Janet%Finch:% “The#principle#that#the#results#of#research#that#has# been#publicly%funded#should#be#freely#accessible#in# the#public#domain#is#a#compelling#one,#and# fundamentally%unanswerable.”
  • 6. What#is#Open#Access? Budapest%DeclaraFon,%2002%% “free#availability#on#the#public#internet,#permiYng#any#users#to#read,#download,# copy,#distribute,#print,#search,#or#link#to#the#full#texts#of#these#ar.cles,#crawl#them# for#indexing,#pass#them#as#data#to#soware…” GraFs%OA:%% Free#online#access# ! ! Libre%OA:%# Free#online#access#with#some#addi.onal# usage#rights#(e.g.#reproduc.on,#text# mining#—#licenseMdependent)$ Gold%OA:%% Immediate#availability#via#the#journal#(OA#or#'hybrid')# May#require#an#ar.cle#processing#charge#(APC)# ! Green%OA:%# Available#via#a#repository#(ins.tu.on#or#subjectMbased)# Author's#peerMreviewed#version#(or#preMprint)# May#require#a#delay#(embargo#period) h]p://www.opensocietyfounda.ons.org/openaccess/
  • 7. Open#Access#is:# ‣ ‣ a#natural#consequence#of#the#internet# good#for#research# faster#exchange#of#ideas# fosters#interMdisciplinarity# enables#text#mining# stronger#sense#of#community#ownership# ‣ good#for#the#taxpayer# be]er#cost#control#(eventually)# access#to#the#research#they#paid#for# changes#dynamic#of#public#engagement# ‣ affec.ng#&#affected#by#many#aspects#of#academic#life… Open#Access#is#not:# ‣ ‣ ‣ free#(or#the#same#as#‘fileMsharing’)# the#end#of#peer#review#or#synonymous#with#low#quality# easy
  • 8. The#rela.onship#of#academics#with#Open#Access
  • 9. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? Funder#&#Govt#Policies# ‣ Too#meek#(preM2012).#Policy#but#li]le#enforcement# ‣ Confusion?#GoldFinch#but#not#GreenFinch?# ‣ New$(revised)#RCUK#policy#(April#1st,#2013):# ‣ Prefers#gold#(and#CCMBY)#but#permits#green# ‣ Embargoes#extended#for#5Myear#transi.on#(6,#12,#24#mo)# Block#grant#funding## 5#yr#rollMout#to#include#review#&#flexibility:#a#‘journey'# ‣ ‣ ‣ HEFCE#&#REF#2020 h]p://blogs.rcuk.ac.uk/2012/09/28/rcukMopenMaccessMpolicyMwhenMtoMgoMgreenMandMwhenMtoMgoMgold/
  • 10. House#of#Lords#Select#Commi]ee#Report#(Feb#2013) h]p://www.parliament.uk/business/commi]ees/commi]eesMaMz/lordsMselect/scienceMandMtechnologyMcommi]ee/news/openMaccessMreportMpublished/
  • 11. House#of#Commons#Select#Commi]ee#Report#(Sept#2013) Ques.ons#about# hybrid#OA h]p://www.parliament.uk/business/commi]ees/commi]eesMaMz/commonsMselect/businessMinnova.onMandMskills/news/onMpublMopenMaccess/
  • 12. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? Opposi.on#of#some#publishers# ‣ worried#about#‘sustainability’#(aka#profits*)# ‣ Elsevier:#36%#(£724m/£2,000m)# ‣ Springer:#34%#(£294m/£866m)# ‣ John#Wiley#&#Sons:#42%#($106m/$253m)# ‣ Informa#plc:#32%#(£47m/£145m)# ‣ NB:#Hindawi:#52%**#($3.3m/$6.3m)# ‣ Are#these#reasonable#given#the#input#from#researchers?# ‣ Hybrid#OA#is#expensive#&#problema.c:## ‣ publishers#need#to#show#clearly#there’s#no#doubleMdipping# ‣ avoid#unless#there#is#a#pathway#to#flipping#journal#to#OA *Figures#for#2010.#Source#—#h]p://poe.ceconomics.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/enormousMprofitsMofMstmMscholarly.html# **h]p://scholarlyoa.com/2013/04/04/hindawisMprofitsMareMlargerMthanMelseviers/
  • 13. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? We’re#s.ll#working#this#stuff#out# ‣ OA#journals#work:#e.g.$PLOS,#BMC# ‣ Innova.on:## ‣ eLife# ‣ PeerJ# ‣ Fron.ers# ‣ Need#a#shakeMup#to#allow#market#penetra.on#by# new#.tles#(see#later) 13
  • 14. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? We’re#s.ll#working#this#stuff#out# ‣ The#Open#Access#Bu]on# h]ps://www.openaccessbu]on.org
  • 15. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? Researchers#are#illMinformed#and#conserva.ve# ‣ too#few#aware#of:# ‣ subscrip.on#costs## ‣ how#OA#works# ‣ benefits#of#OA# ‣ (Librarians#can#help#here!) ‣ confusion#in#universi.es#about#their#public#du.es?# ‣ undermined#by#student#fee#increases?## ‣ obliga.ons#to#taxpayers# ‣ how#are#these#balanced#against#academic#freedom? 15
  • 16. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? Concerns#of#learned#socie.es# ‣ loss#of#valuable#income? h]p://openMaccess.org.uk/informa.onMandMguidance/guideMtoMgoldoa/ Stuart#Shieber h]p://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/whyMopenMaccessMisMbe]erMforMscholarlyMsocie.es/ 16
  • 17. Why#are#we#not#there#yet? Researchers#fear#damage#to#established#models# ‣ varia.on#between#humani.es#and#sciences## ‣ different#rela.onships#with#their#published#work# ‣ varia.on#between#the#sciences# ‣ Physics#arΧiv#vs#bioRΧiv# ‣ suspicious#of#the#web# ‣ addicted#to#impact#factors# Image:%h]p://associate.com/photos/BibleMPicturesMM1897MWMAMFoster/pageM0069M1.jpg 17
  • 18. To#realise#the#vision#of#OA,#we#need#to#replace#the#apparatus#of#the#Impact#factor# occamstypewriter.org/scurry "affirms$the$principle$that$it$is$the$intrinsic$ merit$of$the$work,$and$not$the$:tle$of$the$ journal$in$which$an$author’s$work$is$ published,$that$should$be$considered$in$ making$funding$decisions." "when$assessing$proposals$for$research$ funding$RCUK$considers$that$it$is$the$ quality$of$the$research$proposed$and$not$ where$an$author$has$published…$that$is$of$ paramount$importance." April$8,$2013 18
  • 19. To#realise#the#vision#of#OA,#we#need#to#replace#the#apparatus#of#the#Impact#factor# l$23,#3285–3289. Vale,#R.#D.#(2012)#Mol$Biol$Cel Lawrence,#P.#A.# (2007)#Curr.$Bio l.#17,# R583–5. Samuel#Reich,#E.#(2013)#Nature#502,#291M3.
  • 20. The inexorable rise of Open Access UK: 35% Green OA UK: 5% Gold OA World: 17% Gold OA onl e n nli O (A y line o On C) P APC) o ly (n n OA online Print sub/
  • 21. Remaining#Challenges ‣ GeVng%the%message%out%to#academics## ‣ Agreement#on#the#principles#of#OA# ‣ ‣ OA#mechanisms#that#work#for#all%fields# APC#payment#mechanisms#that#are#fair%and%visible%to%researchers% ‣ Remove#support#for#hybrid%OA?% ‣ Disavowal#of#Impact#Factors% ‣ Compliance%enforcement%from#funders#and#ins.tu.ons# ‣ Market%innovaFons%(from#new#&#est.#publishers)#—#level#playing#field# ‣ Established#publishers#need#to#earn%back%trust%—#transparency#&#generosity% ‣ Dura.on#&#cost#of#transi.on?#(When#will#subs%money#be#released?)# ‣ InternaFonal%cooperaFon%on#OA#policy
  • 22. "It's#the#end#of#the#world#as#we#know#it#(And#I#feel#fine)”# Michael#S.pe,#REM ? s n o s. e u Q