Open%Access%policy%in%the%UK:
a%turbulent%voyage
Professor'Stephen'Curry''
Imperial'College

Queen’s'University,'Belfast
2...
Academic'Journals'were'a'great'idea…

2
…but'the'web'changes'everything

3
More'webIbased'changes…
occamstypewriter.org/scurry/

Warning:'amateur'at'work
4
A'wakeIup'call:'The'Research'Works'Act'(USA)'
"No$Federal$agency$may$engage$in$any$policy$that:
causes$network$dissemina9o...
Anarchy'Policy'in'the'UK'I'2012
Rt%Hon%David%WilleCs%MP:
The'“funding'model'is'surely'going'to'have'to'
change'even'beyond...
What'is'Open'Access?
Budapest%DeclaraIon,%2002%
"free'availability'on'the'public'internet,'permiang'any'users'to'read,'dow...
Open'Access'is:
‣
‣

an'inevitable'consequence'of'the'internet
good'for'research
faster'exchange'of'ideas
fosters'interIdi...
The'relaWonship'of'academics'with'Open'Access

9
Why'are'we'not'there'yet?
Funder'&'Govt'Policies
‣

Too'meek'(preI2012).'Policy'but'lidle'enforcement

‣

Confusion?'GoldF...
House'of'Lords'Select'Commidee'Report'(Feb'2013)

11
hdp://www.parliament.uk/business/commidees/commideesIaIz/lordsIselect...
House'of'Commons'Select'Commidee'Report'(Sept'2013)

QuesWons'about'
hybrid'OA

12
hdp://www.parliament.uk/business/commid...
Why'are'we'not'there'yet?
OpposiWon'of'some'publishers
‣ worried'about'‘sustainability’'(aka'profits)

Others'are'more'forw...
The'Bohannon'‘sWng’'(Science,'Oct'2013)

14
Responses'to'the'sWng
Stuart'Shieber'(Harvard'University)

Sal'Robinson

hdp://www.mhpbooks.com/

15
hdp://blogs.law.harva...
Why'are'we'not'there'yet?
Researchers'are'illIinformed'and'conservaWve
‣ too'few'aware'of:
‣ how'OA'works
‣ subscripWon'co...
Why'are'we'not'there'yet?
Concerns'of'learned'socieWes
‣ loss'of'valuable'income?

hdp://openIaccess.org.uk/informaWonIand...
Why'are'we'not'there'yet?
Researchers'fear'damage'to'established'models
‣ variaWon'between'humaniWes'and'sciences'
‣ differ...
To'realise'the'vision'of'OA,'we'need'to'replace'the'apparatus'of'the'Impact'factor'
occamstypewriter.org/scurry

"ar9cles$...
To'realise'the'vision'of'OA,'we'need'to'replace'the'apparatus'of'the'Impact'factor'
March$21,$2013

"when$assessing$propos...
To'realise'the'vision'of'OA,'we'need'to'replace'the'apparatus'of'the'Impact'factor'

Vale,'R.'D.'(2012)'Mol$Biol$Cel

Lawr...
The inexorable rise of Open Access

UK: 35% Green OA
UK: 5% Gold OA
World: 17% Gold OA

-Oct-2012
22
nly
eo

lin
n

O
e on...
Remaining'Challenges

‣

GeSng%the%message%out%to'academics'

‣

Agreement'on'the'principles'of'OA
‣

‣

OA'mechanisms'tha...
Questions?

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Open access policy in the UK: a turbulent voyage (QUB, Oct 2013)

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Slides from a presentation given at Queen's University Belfast on 21st Oct 2013. Video of talk available here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/directorates/InformationServices/TheLibrary/OpenAccesstoQueensResearch/OpenAccessColloquium/

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Open access policy in the UK: a turbulent voyage (QUB, Oct 2013)

  1. 1. Open%Access%policy%in%the%UK: a%turbulent%voyage Professor'Stephen'Curry'' Imperial'College Queen’s'University,'Belfast 21st'Oct'2013
  2. 2. Academic'Journals'were'a'great'idea… 2
  3. 3. …but'the'web'changes'everything 3
  4. 4. More'webIbased'changes… occamstypewriter.org/scurry/ Warning:'amateur'at'work 4
  5. 5. A'wakeIup'call:'The'Research'Works'Act'(USA)' "No$Federal$agency$may$engage$in$any$policy$that: causes$network$dissemina9on$of$any$private(sector, research,work,without,the,prior,consent,of,the,publisher, of$such$work" Sponsors:'Reps'Carolyn'Maloney'(DINY)'and'Darrell'Issa'(RICA)'I'and$publishers? ‣ 'their'content'?' ‣ surprise'at'subscripWon'costs'&'publisher'profits ‣ amateur'vs'commercial'tensions' 5
  6. 6. Anarchy'Policy'in'the'UK'I'2012 Rt%Hon%David%WilleCs%MP: The'“funding'model'is'surely'going'to'have'to' change'even'beyond'the'welcome'transiWon'to' open'access'and'hybrid'journals'that’s'already' underway.'To%try%to%preserve%the%old%model%is%the% wrong%baCle%to%fight.” Dame%Janet%Finch: “The'principle'that'the'results'of'research'that'has' been'publicly%funded'should'be'freely'accessible'in' the'public'domain'is'a'compelling'one,'and' fundamentally%unanswerable.” 6
  7. 7. What'is'Open'Access? Budapest%DeclaraIon,%2002% "free'availability'on'the'public'internet,'permiang'any'users'to'read,'download,' copy,'distribute,'print,'search,'or'link'to'the'full'texts'of'these'arWcles,'crawl' them'for'indexing,'pass'them'as'data'to'socware…" GraIs%OA:% Free'online'access Gold%OA:% Immediate'availability'via'the'journal'(OA'or''hybrid') May'require'an'arWcle'processing'charge'(APC) Libre%OA:% Free'online'access'with'some'addiWonal' usage'rights'(e.g.'reproducWon,'text' mining'—'licenseIdependent) Green%OA:% Available'via'a'repository'(insWtuWon'or'subjectIbased) Author's'peerIreviewed'version'(or'preIprint) May'require'a'delay'(embargo'period) hdp://www.opensocietyfoundaWons.org/openaccess/
  8. 8. Open'Access'is: ‣ ‣ an'inevitable'consequence'of'the'internet good'for'research faster'exchange'of'ideas fosters'interIdisciplinarity enables'text'mining stronger'sense'of'community'ownership ‣ good'for'the'taxpayer beder'cost'control'(eventually) access'to'the'research'they'paid'for changes'dynamic'of'public'engagement ‣ affecWng'&'affected'by'many'aspect'of'academic'life… Open'Access'is'not: ‣ ‣ free'(or'the'same'as''fileIsharing') the'end'of'peer'review'or'synonymous'with'low'quality
  9. 9. The'relaWonship'of'academics'with'Open'Access 9
  10. 10. Why'are'we'not'there'yet? Funder'&'Govt'Policies ‣ Too'meek'(preI2012).'Policy'but'lidle'enforcement ‣ Confusion?'GoldFinch'but'not'GreenFinch? ‣ New,(revised)'RCUK'policy'(April'1st,'2013): ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Prefers'gold'(and'CCIBY)'but'green'allowed Embargoes'extended'for'5Iyear'transiWon'(6,'12,'24'mo) Block'grant'funding' 5'yr'rollIout'to'include'review'&'flexibility:'a''journey' Role'of'HEFCE?'(Ben'Johnson) hdp://blogs.rcuk.ac.uk/2012/09/28/rcukIopenIaccessIpolicyIwhenItoIgoIgreenIandIwhenItoIgoIgold/ 10
  11. 11. House'of'Lords'Select'Commidee'Report'(Feb'2013) 11 hdp://www.parliament.uk/business/commidees/commideesIaIz/lordsIselect/scienceIandItechnologyIcommidee/news/openIaccessIreportIpublished/
  12. 12. House'of'Commons'Select'Commidee'Report'(Sept'2013) QuesWons'about' hybrid'OA 12 hdp://www.parliament.uk/business/commidees/commideesIaIz/commonsIselect/businessIinnovaWonIandIskills/news/onIpublIopenIaccess/
  13. 13. Why'are'we'not'there'yet? OpposiWon'of'some'publishers ‣ worried'about'‘sustainability’'(aka'profits) Others'are'more'forwardIthinking ‣ OA'journals'work:'e.g.$PLOS,'BMC ‣ InnovaWon'I'eLife,'PeerJ,'FronWers ‣ See'also'the'Open'Access'Budon'(David'Carroll) ‣ Market'in'need'of'a'shakeIup 13
  14. 14. The'Bohannon'‘sWng’'(Science,'Oct'2013) 14
  15. 15. Responses'to'the'sWng Stuart'Shieber'(Harvard'University) Sal'Robinson hdp://www.mhpbooks.com/ 15 hdp://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/10/15/lessonsIfromItheIfauxIjournalIinvesWgaWon/
  16. 16. Why'are'we'not'there'yet? Researchers'are'illIinformed'and'conservaWve ‣ too'few'aware'of: ‣ how'OA'works ‣ subscripWon'costs'&'access'problems' ‣ confusion'in'universiWes'about'their'public'duWes? ‣ obligaWons'to'funders'&'taxpayers hdp://www.lrb.co.uk/v35/n20/stefanIcollini/soldIout 16
  17. 17. Why'are'we'not'there'yet? Concerns'of'learned'socieWes ‣ loss'of'valuable'income? hdp://openIaccess.org.uk/informaWonIandIguidance/guideItoIgoldoa/ Stuart'Shieber hdp://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2013/01/29/whyIopenIaccessIisIbederIforIscholarlyIsocieWes/ 17
  18. 18. Why'are'we'not'there'yet? Researchers'fear'damage'to'established'models ‣ variaWon'between'humaniWes'and'sciences' ‣ different'relaWonships'with'their'published'work ‣ variaWon'between'the'sciences ‣ Physics'arΧiv'vs'bioRΧiv ‣ suspicious'of'the'web ‣ addicted'to'impact'factors' Image:'hdp://associate.com/photos/BibleIPicturesII1897IWIAIFoster/pageI0069I1.jpg 18
  19. 19. To'realise'the'vision'of'OA,'we'need'to'replace'the'apparatus'of'the'Impact'factor' occamstypewriter.org/scurry "ar9cles$in$all$journals$should$be$ assessed$on,their,own,merits,rather$ than$on$the$basis$of$the$journal$in$ which$they$were$published" "affirms$the$principle$that$it$is$the$intrinsic, merit,of,the,work,$and$not$the$9tle$of$the$ journal$in$which$an$author’s$work$is$ published,$that$should$be$considered$in$ making$funding$decisions." 19
  20. 20. To'realise'the'vision'of'OA,'we'need'to'replace'the'apparatus'of'the'Impact'factor' March$21,$2013 "when$assessing$proposals$for$research$ funding$RCUK$considers$that$it$is$the$ quality,of,the,research$proposed$and$not$ where$an$author$has$published…$that$is$of$ paramount$importance." 20 April$8,$2013
  21. 21. To'realise'the'vision'of'OA,'we'need'to'replace'the'apparatus'of'the'Impact'factor' Vale,'R.'D.'(2012)'Mol$Biol$Cel Lawrence,'P.'A.' l$23,'3285–3289. (2007)'Curr.$Bio l.'17,' R583–5. Samuel'Reich,'E.'(2013)'Nature'502,'291I3.
  22. 22. The inexorable rise of Open Access UK: 35% Green OA UK: 5% Gold OA World: 17% Gold OA -Oct-2012 22 nly eo lin n O e only nlin O oA (n C) P APC) (no OA online Print sub/
  23. 23. Remaining'Challenges ‣ GeSng%the%message%out%to'academics' ‣ Agreement'on'the'principles'of'OA ‣ ‣ OA'mechanisms'that'work'for'all%fields APC'payment'mechanisms'that'are'fair%and%visible%to%researchers ‣ Remove'support'for'hybrid%OA? ‣ Disavowal'of'Impact'Factors ‣ Compliance%enforcement%from'funders'and'insWtuWons ‣ Market%innovaIons%(from'new'&'est.'publishers)'—'level'playing'field ‣ DuraWon'&'cost'of'transiWon?'(When'will'subs%money'be'released?) ‣ InternaIonal%cooperaIon%on'OA'policy'(Niamh'Brennan) 23
  24. 24. Questions? 24
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