Transport In Animals

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Transport In Animals

  1. 1. Transport in animals Mass flow transport
  2. 2. Mass flow transport <ul><li>Needed for a constant supply of: </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Also needed to get rid of waste products such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mass flow transport <ul><li>Small animals such as sea anemones, flatworms and nematodes can do this by diffusion across their moist body surfaces </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mass flow transport <ul><li>For larger animals diffusion is too slow to supply all the body cells efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>They need a a transport system and special exchange surfaces. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mass flow transport <ul><li>Humans have a circulatory system that transports large volumes of fluid to all parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a mass flow system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mass flow transport <ul><li>Our circulatory system consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>Blood – the fluid that is transported through the system </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels – the tubes that carry the blood </li></ul><ul><li>A heart – to pump the blood through the blood vessels </li></ul>
  7. 7. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs
  8. 8. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs
  9. 9. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs
  10. 10. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs
  11. 11. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta
  12. 12. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta inferior vena cava superior vena cava
  13. 13. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta inferior vena cava superior vena cava pulmonary artery pulmonary vein
  14. 14. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta inferior vena cava superior vena cava pulmonary artery pulmonary vein hepatic vein hepatic artery
  15. 15. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta inferior vena cava superior vena cava pulmonary artery pulmonary vein hepatic vein hepatic artery renal vein renal artery
  16. 16. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta inferior vena cava superior vena cava pulmonary artery pulmonary vein hepatic vein hepatic artery renal vein renal artery hepatic portal vein
  17. 17. head, neck and arms lungs right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle liver gut kidneys body and legs aorta inferior vena cava superior vena cava pulmonary artery pulmonary vein hepatic vein hepatic artery renal vein renal artery hepatic portal vein mesenteric artery
  18. 18. Closed or open? <ul><li>Animals such as snails and insects have open blood systems . </li></ul><ul><li>The blood is pumped out of the heart into large spaces, not through blood vessels. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Single or double? <ul><li>Fish have a single circulation system </li></ul><ul><li>The hearts pumps blood to the gills and from their it passes directly to the tissues before being returned to the heart. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Double circulation <ul><li>In mammals, the flow of blood is maintained by: </li></ul><ul><li>A muscular heart that pumps blood </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmical contractions of muscle in artery walls (the pulse) </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of body muscles during normal movement squeezing blood along the veins </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing creates a negative pressure inside the thorax which draws blood towards the heart </li></ul>
  21. 21. The heart <ul><li>The heart is mainly made of cardiac muscle , each muscle cell is joined to the next by an intercalary disc. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells are ‘myogenic’ , this means they can contract and relax of their own accord throughout a human life </li></ul>
  22. 23. cardiac muscle fibre
  23. 24. cardiac muscle fibre one muscle cell
  24. 25. cardiac muscle fibre one muscle cell nucleus
  25. 26. cardiac muscle fibre one muscle cell nucleus intercalary disc between muscle cells, these allow the rapid spread of impulses through the tissue from cell to cell
  26. 28. superior vena cava
  27. 29. superior vena cava aorta
  28. 30. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery
  29. 31. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins
  30. 32. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium
  31. 33. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium
  32. 34. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve
  33. 35. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve bicuspid valve
  34. 36. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve bicuspid valve right ventricle
  35. 37. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve bicuspid valve right ventricle left ventricle
  36. 38. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve bicuspid valve right ventricle left ventricle septum
  37. 39. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve bicuspid valve right ventricle left ventricle septum semi-lunar valves
  38. 40. superior vena cava aorta left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery pulmonary veins pulmonary veins right atrium left atrium tricuspid valve bicuspid valve right ventricle left ventricle septum semi-lunar valves inferior vena cava
  39. 52. The heart <ul><li>The heart is really two pumps side by side. </li></ul><ul><li>The left side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>The right side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body </li></ul>
  40. 53. The heart <ul><li>Each side of the heart is completely separate and so deoxygenated blood and oxygenated blood do not mix </li></ul>
  41. 54. The heart <ul><li>The thickness of the walls of each chamber is related to the distance that it has to pump the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The atria just pump into the ventricles so are very thin </li></ul>
  42. 55. The heart <ul><li>The right ventricle has to pump the blood to the lungs and has a thinner wall than the left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>… because this has to pump blood all around the body </li></ul>
  43. 56. The heart <ul><li>The valves keep the blood flowing in one direction. </li></ul><ul><li>The atrio-ventricular valves prevent the back flow of blood into the atria when the ventricles contract </li></ul><ul><li>On the right side the tricuspid valve has three flaps, on the left the bicuspid has two flaps. </li></ul>
  44. 57. The heart <ul><li>The semi-lunar valves are found at the base of the pulmonary artery and the aorta. </li></ul><ul><li>These prevent the backflow of blood into the ventricles when they relax </li></ul>

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