Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Revision Respiration
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Revision Respiration

  • 4,427 views
Published

 

Published in Economy & Finance , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • yes it goes fast but did peope not think to pause it there is a button to. so you can read it and undersatand. i think it is really gd n helpful :)
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • whoever made that did u not think that people need to actually read it? well u should have cause i cant and i would be suprised if anyone else could and can anyone help i have a really big science test tomorrow and im really stressing man school sucks(N)
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,427
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
100
Comments
2
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. respiration A REVISION OF THE PRE-SUMMER WORK
  • 2. What respiration actually is…
    • "Respiration is the chemical process of releasing energy from organic compounds."
  • 3. It is important that you understand the correct terms for some of the processes:
    • Gas exchange - The movement of oxygen into an organism and carbon dioxide out of an organism.
    • Breathing - The ventilation movements that are needed in some larger animals so that efficient gas exchange can take place. It involves ribs, intercostal muscles, the diaphragm and lungs.
    • Respiration - The process by which complex organic molecules are broken down to release energy.
    • Aerobic respiration - Requires oxygen to fully oxidise the organic molecule. This releases lots of energy.
    • Anaerobic respiration -The breakdown of the molecule without oxygen. This releases much less energy.
  • 4. ATP
    • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the universal currency of energy. It is a small molecule with 3 phosphate groups (P) attached to an adenosine molecule i.e. Adenosine-P-P-P
    • During respiration, high energy C-C, C-H and C-OH bonds are broken. Lower energy bonds are formed and the difference is released and used to attach a P to Adenosine-P-P (ADP adenosine diphosphate), making ATP. When energy is required at a later time by a cell, it can use the ATP and break a P off the end. This releases the energy needed (30.6kJ for every ATP, ADP + P). The more ATPs used, the more energy is released.
    • For aerobic respiration to occur, the cell needs to possess mitochondria.
  • 5. An outline of the stages of respiration
    • Glycolysis (splitting of sugar):  What = formation of pyruvic acid from glucose.  Where = cytoplasm of a cell.   
    • Krebs cycle:   What = removal of hydrogen from pyruvic acid.  Where = matrix of the mitochondria.   
    • Electron transport chain / oxidative phosphorylation:   What = using hydrogen to produce ATP.  Where = inner mitochondrial membrane.
  • 6. Electron / hydrogen carriers
    • Many of the reactions in the stages of respiration involve oxidation by the removal of electrons or hydrogen atoms (H). These are transferred to electron/hydrogen carriers. Ultimately they are passed to oxygen to form water right at the very last stage of respiration.
    • Two important electron/hydrogen carriers are NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide).
  • 7. Oxidation / reduction
    • Oxidation is the addition of oxygen, the removal of hydrogen or the loss of electrons.
    • Reduction is the addition of hydrogen, the removal of oxygen or the gain of electrons.
    • A quick way to remember this is " OILRIG ":
    • O xidation I s L oss, R eduction I s G ain.
  • 8. Glycolysis
  • 9. Glycolysis
    • 1. Glucose is phosphorylated twice to make a 6C sugar phosphate. 2 ATPs are used to supply the P groups. This makes the glucose more reactive and so…
    • 2. The 6C sugar phosphate breaks down to form 2, 3-carbon sugar phosphates, called triose phosphates (TP).
    • 3. Hydrogen is removed from each of the 2 TP molecules. The hydrogens are passed to 2 NADs (the NADs are reduced). 2 ATPs are made directly from the conversion of each TP to pyruvic acid (written shorthand as PA or called pyruvate) as the phosphate groups are removed.
  • 10. Glycolysis
    • Into glycolysis:
    • 1 glucose (6C)
    • 2 NAD
    • 2ATP
    • Out of glycolysis
    • 2 pyruvic acid (3C)
    • 2 reduced NAD (2NADH + H + )
    • 4 ATP
  • 11. Glycolysis
    • Net Gain = 2 ATP and 2 NADH + H+
    • This stage occurs in the cytoplasm. The next stage occurs in the mitochondria. From here, the reaction will only proceed if oxygen is available.
  • 12. The link reaction
  • 13. The link reaction
    • 1. The PA molecules enter the mitochondrion.
    • 2. CO 2 and hydrogen are removed from each PA to create 2 2-C molecules. The hydrogen is transferred to NAD
    • 3. The 2-C molecule is then combined with coenzyme A (CoA) to form the 2C compound, acetylCoA. (CoA is a vitamin derivative which acts as a transporter of the 'acetate' psrt left from the PA molecule)
  • 14. The link reaction
    • Into link:
    • 2 PA and 2 CoA
    • 2NAD
    • Out of the link:
    • 2 Acetyl CoA
    • 2CO 2
    • 2 reduced NAD (2NADH + H + )
  • 15. Krebs Cycle
    • This is also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
    • For each glucose molecule, there were 2 pyruvic acid molecules formed, (and therefore 2 acetylCoA molecules formed) so the whole cycle takes place twice for every glucose molecule respired.
  • 16. Krebs Cycle
    • 1. Each acetylCoA (2C) combines with an oxaloacetic acid (4C) to make a 6C compound (citric acid).
    • 2. In a series of steps, for each 6C compound, 2 CO 2 molecules are released, 3 NAD molecules are reduced, 2 FAD molecules are reduced, 1 ATP molecule is made directly.
    • 3. The 4C compound is regenerated (by the removal of the 2 Cs in 2 CO 2 molecules) so that the cycle can begin again with more molecules of acetylCoA.
  • 17. Krebs Cycle
    • Into Krebs:
    • 2 acetylCoA
    • 6 NAD
    • 2 FAD
    • 2 ADP + P
    • Out of Krebs:
    • 2 oxaloacetate
    • 4 CO2
    • 6 reduced NAD (6 NADH + H+)
    • 2 reduced FAD (2 FADH + H+)2 ATP