Glycolysis
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  • 1. Glycolysis
  • 2. The first stage of respiration Glycolysis
  • 3. Respiration
    • Process of respiration is split into four parts
    • By breaking it into four parts we will have less to learn at any one stage
  • 4. Glycolysis is the first stage of respiration!
  • 5. Glycolysis is the first stage of respiration! Glycolysis splits one molecule of glucose into two smaller molecules of pyruvate
  • 6. Glycolysis is the first stage of respiration! Glycolysis splits one molecule of glucose into two smaller molecules of pyruvate Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) molecule
  • 7. Glycolysis is the first stage of respiration! Glycolysis splits one molecule of glucose into two smaller molecules of pyruvate Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) molecule Pyruvate is a triose (3-carbon) molecule
  • 8. Glycolysis is the first stage of respiration! Glycolysis splits one molecule of glucose into two smaller molecules of pyruvate Glucose is a hexose (6-carbon) molecule Pyruvate is a triose (3-carbon) molecule Pyruvate is also known as pyruvic acid
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells.
  • 11.
    • Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells.
  • 12.
    • It’s the first stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  • 13.
    • It’s the first stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
    • It doesn’t need oxygen to take place – so it’s anaerobic
  • 14.
    • It’s the first stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
    • It doesn’t need oxygen to take place – so it’s anaerobic
  • 15. There are TWO STAGES of GLYCOLYSIS – Phosphorylation and Oxidation
  • 16. Glycolysis
  • 17. Glycolysis 1 2 A B
  • 18. Glycolysis 1 2 A B These arrows in diagrams just mean that A goes into the main reaction and is converted to B. A will normally release or collect something from molecule 1, e.g. hydrogen or phosphate
  • 19. Stage One - Phosphorylation
  • 20. Stage One - Phosphorylation
    • Glucose is phosphorylated by adding 2 phosphates from 2 molecules of ATP to give a hexose phosphate.
  • 21. Stage One - Phosphorylation
    • Glucose is phosphorylated by adding 2 phosphates from 2 molecules of ATP to give a hexose phosphate.
    • The hexose phosphate is split using water
  • 22. Stage One - Phosphorylation
    • Glucose is phosphorylated by adding 2 phosphates from 2 molecules of ATP to give a hexose phosphate.
    • The hexose phosphate is split using water ( hydrolysis )
  • 23. Stage One - Phosphorylation
    • Glucose is phosphorylated by adding 2 phosphates from 2 molecules of ATP to give a hexose phosphate.
    • The hexose phosphate is split using water ( hydrolysis )
    • 2 molecules of triose phosphate and 2 molecules of ADP are created.
  • 24. A triose phosphate is just a simple 3-carbon sugar with a phosphate group attached. Different books use different names!
  • 25. What’s the point?
    • Glucose can now no longer leave the cell.
  • 26. What’s the point?
    • Glucose can now no longer leave the cell.
    • Molecules produced are much more reactive!
  • 27. Stage Two - Oxidation
  • 28. Stage Two - Oxidation
    • The triose phosphates are oxidised (lose oxygen), forming two molecules of pyruvate .
  • 29. Stage Two - Oxidation
    • The triose phosphates are oxidised (lose oxygen), forming two molecules of pyruvate .
    • Coenzyme NAD + collects the hydrogen ions, forming 2 reduced NAD ( NADH + H + )
  • 30. Stage Two - Oxidation
    • The triose phosphates are oxidised (lose oxygen), forming two molecules of pyruvate .
    • Coenzyme NAD + collects the hydrogen ions, forming 2 reduced NAD ( NADH + H + )
    A coenzyme is a helper molecule that carries chemical groups or ions, e.g. NAD + removes H + and carries it to other molecules.
  • 31. Stage Two - Oxidation
    • The triose phosphates are oxidised (lose oxygen), forming two molecules of pyruvate .
    • Coenzyme NAD + collects the hydrogen ions, forming 2 reduced NAD ( NADH + H + )
    • 4 ATP are produced, but 2 were used up at the beginning, so there’s a net gain of 2 ATP .
  • 32. Next in Aerobic respiration….
  • 33. Next in Aerobic respiration….
    • The 2 molecules of reduced NAD go to the electron transport chain (ETC), part 4 of respiration.
  • 34. Next in Aerobic respiration….
    • The 2 molecules of reduced NAD go to the electron transport chain (ETC), part 4 of respiration.
    2. The two pyruvate molecules go into the matrix of the mitochondria for the link reaction .
  • 35.
    • I bet your so excited you can not wait!
  • 36. The Link Reaction
  • 37. The Link Reaction The second stage of respiration
  • 38.  
  • 39. You are now in the matrix of the mitochondria!
  • 40.  
  • 41. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration
  • 42. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration The Link Reaction converts Pyruvate to Acetyl Coenzyme A
  • 43. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration The Link Reaction converts Pyruvate to Acetyl Coenzyme A The link reaction happens when oxygen is available.
  • 44. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration
  • 45. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration
    • One carbon atom is removed from pyruvate in the form of CO 2 .
  • 46. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration
    • One carbon atom is removed from pyruvate in the form of CO 2 .
    • The remaining 2-carbon molecule combines with coenzyme A to produce acetyl coenzyme A ( acetyl CoA ).
  • 47. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration
    • One carbon atom is removed from pyruvate in the form of CO 2 .
    • The remaining 2-carbon molecule combines with coenzyme A to produce acetyl coenzyme A ( acetyl CoA ).
    • Another oxidation reaction happens when NAD + collects more hydrogen ions . This forms reduced NAD ( NADH + H + ).
  • 48. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration 4. No ATP is produced in this reaction.
  • 49. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration The Link reaction happens Twice for every Glucose Molecule
  • 50. Link Reaction – 2 nd stage of respiration The Link reaction happens Twice for every Glucose Molecule So for every glucose molecule used in glycolysis, two pyruvate and two acetyl CoA molecules are made.
  • 51. So for each glucose molecule:
  • 52. So for each glucose molecule:
    • Two molecules of acetyl CoA go into Krebs cycle (part 3 of respiration)
  • 53. So for each glucose molecule:
    • Two molecules of acetyl CoA go into Krebs cycle (part 3 of respiration)
  • 54. So for each glucose molecule:
    • Two molecules of acetyl CoA go into Krebs cycle (part 3 of respiration)
    • Two carbon dioxide molecules are released as a waste product of respiration
  • 55. So for each glucose molecule:
    • Two molecules of acetyl CoA go into Krebs cycle (part 3 of respiration)
    • Two carbon dioxide molecules are released as a waste product of respiration
    • Two molecules of reduced NAD are formed and go into the electron transport chain (part 4 of respiration)
  • 56. So for each glucose molecule:
    • Two molecules of acetyl CoA go into Krebs cycle (part 3 of respiration)
    • Two carbon dioxide molecules are released as a waste product of respiration
    • Two molecules of reduced NAD are formed and go into the electron transport chain (part 4 of respiration)
  • 57. Final thoughts….
    • Acetyl Co-what?????
    • It IS very confusing, but you need to know it.
    • Take your time and fet to grips with one stage at a time.
    • Don’t worry if you can not remember all the details straight away.
    • If you can remember where each stage starts and what the products are, you’re getting there!