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Genetic fingerprinting Each DNA profile is unique!
Genetic fingerprinting <ul><li>Regions of chromosomes that code for proteins are called  introns . </li></ul><ul><li>Other...
Genetic fingerprinting <ul><li>Extrons contain blocks of repeated nucleotides called  short tandem repeats  (STRs) </li></...
Genetic fingerprinting
How it is done – part 1 <ul><li>DNA is extracted from sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into millions of small fragments </li>...
 
How it is done – part 2 <ul><li>DNA fragments are separated by  electrophoresis </li></ul><ul><li>(Fragments are exposed t...
How it is done – part 2 <ul><li>The smaller the fragment – the faster it moves. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is separated into ba...
How it is done – part 3 <ul><li>The pattern of fragments are transferred to a nylon membrane by a process called  Southern...
How it is done – part 4 <ul><li>Radioactive probes are used to attach to specific parts of the fragments. </li></ul><ul><l...
How it is done - part 5 <ul><li>The nylon sheet is placed under X-ray film. </li></ul><ul><li>The radioactive probes on th...
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Genetic Fingerprinting

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  • Introns are non-coding.
    Exons code for the proteinbiosynthesis.
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Transcript of "Genetic Fingerprinting"

  1. 1. Genetic fingerprinting Each DNA profile is unique!
  2. 2. Genetic fingerprinting <ul><li>Regions of chromosomes that code for proteins are called introns . </li></ul><ul><li>Other regions that are non-coding are called extrons. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genetic fingerprinting <ul><li>Extrons contain blocks of repeated nucleotides called short tandem repeats (STRs) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the number of times that these STRs are repeated that produces the variations in individuals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Genetic fingerprinting
  5. 5. How it is done – part 1 <ul><li>DNA is extracted from sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into millions of small fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Using restriction endonucleases </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at STRs </li></ul>
  6. 7. How it is done – part 2 <ul><li>DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis </li></ul><ul><li>(Fragments are exposed to electric current in a trough of gel) </li></ul><ul><li>Different fragments move at different rates through the gel. </li></ul>
  7. 8. How it is done – part 2 <ul><li>The smaller the fragment – the faster it moves. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is separated into bands according to size of the fragments. </li></ul>
  8. 9. How it is done – part 3 <ul><li>The pattern of fragments are transferred to a nylon membrane by a process called Southern blotting . </li></ul>
  9. 10. How it is done – part 4 <ul><li>Radioactive probes are used to attach to specific parts of the fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>Any probes not bound are washed off. </li></ul><ul><li>The membrane is dried </li></ul>
  10. 11. How it is done - part 5 <ul><li>The nylon sheet is placed under X-ray film. </li></ul><ul><li>The radioactive probes on the DNA fragments expose the film. </li></ul><ul><li>This produces visible pattern of light and dark bands which is unique to each individual. </li></ul>
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