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  • 1. FUNGI Yeasts and Penicillium
  • 2. FUNGI
    • Fungi are classified as a separate kingdom
    • The typical fungus is not made of cells but of tiny branching threads called hyphae
    • Yeasts are not typical fungi!
  • 3. FUNGI
    • The mass of hyphae that makes up one individual fungus is called its mycelium
    • The hyphae are bounded by a plasma membrane and have a cell wall.
    • In higher fungi the main component of the cell wall is chitin
  • 4. FUNGI
    • Fungi are eukaryotic organisms (unlike bacteria)
    • They never contain chloroplasts
    • All are heterotrophic; most a saprophytic; a few are parasitic
  • 5. FUNGI
    • Saprophytic fungi are of enormous ecological importance.
    • Unlike most bacteria they can produce cellulases and lignases
    • They can also taste exceptionally good!
  • 6.  
  • 7. FUNGI
    • Penicillium and yeasts are classed as higher fungi
    • This means that the hyphae are septate (in Penicillium – yeast don’t have hyphae having a cellular structure)
  • 8. FUNGI
    • Penicillium is a fungus with many useful enzymes at its disposal to attack a host of organic foodstuffs.   .  
    • It is partial to bread, cheese, cold meats, old sandwiches, cereal products and a host of other things . 
  • 9. FUNGI
    • Penicillium roquefortii  used in the manufacture of blue cheese. 
    • The blue in the blue-cheese is caused by the pigment in the spores (conidia) of the fungus.  You are consuming spores by the million when you eat blue cheese.   Hope it doesn't put you off! 
    • Penicillium notatum and P. chrysogenum are used in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. 
  • 10. FUNGI
    • Penicillium has feeding hyphae, which divide into branches through its substrate.
    • It also has aeriel hyphae called condiophores which branch to form sterigma.
  • 11. FUNGI
    • Cytoplasm oozes from the tips of the sterigma
    • This hardens to form chains of green-grey condiospores.
    • These are dispersed by air currents and can each germinate to form a hypha on a suitable medium.
  • 12. Penicillium notatum
  • 13. FUNGI
    • YEAST
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae – used in bread making
    • Saccharomyces ellipsoideus – used in wine making
    • Saccharomyces carlsbergensis – used in lager making
    • Differ form each other by only one gene
  • 14. FUNGI
    • YEAST
    • Ellipsoid in shape
    • Permeable cell wall composed of mannose and glucose polymers
    • Full range of eukaryotic organelles
  • 15. FUNGI
    • YEAST
    • One or more large vacuoles occupy a central position in the cell
    • Storage materials such as glycogen and oil globules are often present in the cytoplasm
  • 16.  
  • 17. FUNGI
    • Yeast
    • Under conditions unfavourable for growth the yeast can undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores that act like gametes
    • They usually reproduce asexually by budding