Brewing And Baking
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Brewing And Baking






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Brewing And Baking Brewing And Baking Presentation Transcript

  • Brewing and baking and mycoprotein Ancient biotechnologies (mycoprotein is not ancient!)
  • Bread making
    • Basic ingredients are wheat, water, yeast, fat, sugar and salt.
    • Dough is made by mixing ingredients together.
    • Dough then ferments at 27 o C in a humid atmosphere.
  • Bread making
    • The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , feeds on the sugar breaking it down anaerobically to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  • Bread making
    • The bubbles of CO 2 remain trapped in the sticky dough causing it to rise.
    • Dough is then cut and placed in loaf tins.
    • Dough then goes through a final fermentation at 45 o C.
  • Bread making
    • The baking kills the yeast, evaporates off the alcohol and cooks the flour.
    • A modern bakery can make 10 000 loaves of bread per hour.
  • Beer Making
    • Most beers are made from barley and hops.
    • The process consists of seven stages!
  • Beer Making
    • Malting
    • Barley steeped in water
    • Then allowed to germinate.
    • Gibberellic acid is added to speed up germination
    • During process amylases are mobilised (to hydrolyse seeds starch into maltose)
  • Beer Making
    • Kilning
    • Malt is gradually heated to between 65 and 80 o C
    • This kills the embryos without destroying the amylase.
    • Higher the temp. – the darker the beer.
  • Beer Making
    • Milling
    • Barley grains then crushed into a powder called grist .
  • Beer Making
    • Mashing
    • The grist is mixed with water at 65 o C.
    • The amylase breaks down the starch into sugars.
    • The nutrient rich liquor ( sweet wort) is separated from the spent grains.
    • The spent grains can be used as cattle feed.
  • Beer Making
    • Boiling
    • Hops added for bitter flavour
    • Further enzyme action is stopped
    • Full flavour is extracted.
  • Beer Making
    • Fermentation
    • Boiled wort is cooled to 30 o C and innoculated with yeast
    • Left to ferment for 7 to 10 days.
    • Sugars turned into alcohol and CO 2
  • Beer Making
    • Finishing
    • Beer is filtered (spent yeast sold to make yeast extract – Marmite)
    • Modern beers are pasteurised, standardised and finally bottled or canned.
  • Mycoprotein A food protein made from microorganisms
  • Mycoprotein
    • Made from the hyphae of the fungus Fusarium graminearum
    • Cultured on a solution of
    • glucose from cereal starch (carbon source)
    • ammonia (nitrogen source)
    • mineral salts
    • choline (promotes longer hyphal growth)
  • Mycoprotein
    • Cultured in air lift fermenter (see special hand out from Edexcel)
    • Culture maintained at 30 o C to promote optimum growth rate.
    • Grown by continuous culture.
    • High in protein but low in fat – a healthy food?
  • Mycoprotein
    • Problem is that it contains too much RNA
    • This has to be removed by enzymes.
    • Tastes of nothing!
    • Fungal hyphae do resemble myofibrils in meat.
    • Marketed under the name of Quorn.