Brewing And Baking


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Brewing And Baking

  1. 1. Brewing and baking and mycoprotein Ancient biotechnologies (mycoprotein is not ancient!)
  2. 2. Bread making <ul><li>Basic ingredients are wheat, water, yeast, fat, sugar and salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough is made by mixing ingredients together. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough then ferments at 27 o C in a humid atmosphere. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bread making <ul><li>The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , feeds on the sugar breaking it down anaerobically to ethanol and carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bread making <ul><li>The bubbles of CO 2 remain trapped in the sticky dough causing it to rise. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough is then cut and placed in loaf tins. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough then goes through a final fermentation at 45 o C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bread making <ul><li>The baking kills the yeast, evaporates off the alcohol and cooks the flour. </li></ul><ul><li>A modern bakery can make 10 000 loaves of bread per hour. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beer Making <ul><li>Most beers are made from barley and hops. </li></ul><ul><li>The process consists of seven stages! </li></ul>
  7. 8. Beer Making <ul><li>Malting </li></ul><ul><li>Barley steeped in water </li></ul><ul><li>Then allowed to germinate. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibberellic acid is added to speed up germination </li></ul><ul><li>During process amylases are mobilised (to hydrolyse seeds starch into maltose) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Beer Making <ul><li>Kilning </li></ul><ul><li>Malt is gradually heated to between 65 and 80 o C </li></ul><ul><li>This kills the embryos without destroying the amylase. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the temp. – the darker the beer. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Beer Making <ul><li>Milling </li></ul><ul><li>Barley grains then crushed into a powder called grist . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Beer Making <ul><li>Mashing </li></ul><ul><li>The grist is mixed with water at 65 o C. </li></ul><ul><li>The amylase breaks down the starch into sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutrient rich liquor ( sweet wort) is separated from the spent grains. </li></ul><ul><li>The spent grains can be used as cattle feed. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Beer Making <ul><li>Boiling </li></ul><ul><li>Hops added for bitter flavour </li></ul><ul><li>Further enzyme action is stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Full flavour is extracted. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Beer Making <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Boiled wort is cooled to 30 o C and innoculated with yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Left to ferment for 7 to 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars turned into alcohol and CO 2 </li></ul>
  13. 14. Beer Making <ul><li>Finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Beer is filtered (spent yeast sold to make yeast extract – Marmite) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern beers are pasteurised, standardised and finally bottled or canned. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Mycoprotein A food protein made from microorganisms
  15. 16. Mycoprotein <ul><li>Made from the hyphae of the fungus Fusarium graminearum </li></ul><ul><li>Cultured on a solution of </li></ul><ul><li>glucose from cereal starch (carbon source) </li></ul><ul><li>ammonia (nitrogen source) </li></ul><ul><li>mineral salts </li></ul><ul><li>choline (promotes longer hyphal growth) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Mycoprotein <ul><li>Cultured in air lift fermenter (see special hand out from Edexcel) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture maintained at 30 o C to promote optimum growth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Grown by continuous culture. </li></ul><ul><li>High in protein but low in fat – a healthy food? </li></ul>
  17. 18. Mycoprotein <ul><li>Problem is that it contains too much RNA </li></ul><ul><li>This has to be removed by enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tastes of nothing! </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal hyphae do resemble myofibrils in meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketed under the name of Quorn. </li></ul>