Blood Sugar

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Blood Sugar

  1. 1. Homeostasis The control of blood sugar levels (The Regulation of Glucose in the blood)
  2. 2. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood <ul><li>Normal glucose level is about 5 to 5.5 mmol dm -3 </li></ul><ul><li>If this level rises too high it would affect the water content of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>If glucose appears in the urine ( glycosuria) water reabsorbtion in the kidney will be reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>If glucose level in the tissue fluid is high water will be lost from cells by osmosis . </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood <ul><li>If levels fall below 3 mmol dm -3 ( hypoglycaemia) this would lead to a loss of consciousness (coma). </li></ul><ul><li>If level goes above 10 mmol dm -3 ( hyperglycaemia ) glucose will appear in the urine, the pH of the blood would fall and this also leads to coma. </li></ul><ul><li>Both conditions are a feature of diabetes mellitus . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Insulin is the “key” that allows special “gates” for sugar transport across cell membranes to be opened
  5. 7. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood <ul><li>If insulin can not be made the glucose is not removed from the blood and glycogen is broken down into sugar resulting in high blood sugar levels. This is Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes . </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly caused by the destruction of beta-cells due to viral infection. </li></ul><ul><li>It seems the immune system makes a mistake and cells that normally protect you from germs attack your beta cells instead </li></ul>
  6. 10. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood <ul><li>Type II (insulin-independent diabetes) is linked to the ageing process and obesity – often controlled by controlling the diet. </li></ul>
  7. 13. Normal blood sugar level
  8. 14. Normal blood sugar level
  9. 15. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver
  10. 16. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver
  11. 17. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver Detector – the alpha and beta cells of the Islets of langerhans. The alpha cells stop secreting glucagon and the beta cells secrete insulin
  12. 18. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver Detector – the alpha and beta cells of the Islets of langerhans. The alpha cells stop secreting glucagon and the beta cells secrete insulin
  13. 19. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver Detector – the alpha and beta cells of the Islets of langerhans. The alpha cells stop secreting glucagon and the beta cells secrete insulin Effector – liver cells stop breaking glycogen down due to drop in glucagon; most body cells increase uptake and use of glucose due to rise in insulin
  14. 20. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver Detector – the alpha and beta cells of the Islets of langerhans. The alpha cells stop secreting glucagon and the beta cells secrete insulin Effector – liver cells stop breaking glycogen down due to drop in glucagon; most body cells increase uptake and use of glucose due to rise in insulin
  15. 21. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver Detector – the alpha and beta cells of the Islets of langerhans. The alpha cells stop secreting glucagon and the beta cells secrete insulin Effector – liver cells stop breaking glycogen down due to drop in glucagon; most body cells increase uptake and use of glucose due to rise in insulin Blood glucose stabilised
  16. 22. Normal blood sugar level If blood sugar rises This could be the Result of ingestion of Food or release of Glucose from the liver Detector – the alpha and beta cells of the Islets of langerhans. The alpha cells stop secreting glucagon and the beta cells secrete insulin Effector – liver cells stop breaking glycogen down due to drop in glucagon; most body cells increase uptake and use of glucose due to rise in insulin Blood glucose stabilised negative feedback control loop
  17. 23. Normal blood sugar level
  18. 24. Normal blood sugar level
  19. 25. Normal blood sugar level If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods
  20. 26. Normal blood sugar level If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods
  21. 27. Normal blood sugar level Detector – alpha and beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and the beta cells stop secreting insulin If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods
  22. 28. Normal blood sugar level Detector – alpha and beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and the beta cells stop secreting insulin If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods
  23. 29. Normal blood sugar level Detector – alpha and beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and the beta cells stop secreting insulin If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods Effector – liver cells break down glycogen into glucose due to rise in glucagon: most body cells decrease uptake and use of glucose due to fall in insulin
  24. 30. Normal blood sugar level Detector – alpha and beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and the beta cells stop secreting insulin If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods Effector – liver cells break down glycogen into glucose due to rise in glucagon: most body cells decrease uptake and use of glucose due to fall in insulin
  25. 31. Normal blood sugar level Detector – alpha and beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and the beta cells stop secreting insulin If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods Effector – liver cells break down glycogen into glucose due to rise in glucagon: most body cells decrease uptake and use of glucose due to fall in insulin Blood glucose stabilised
  26. 32. Normal blood sugar level Detector – alpha and beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and the beta cells stop secreting insulin If blood glucose falls This could be the result of a high rate of cellular uptake and use of glucose or failure to ingest carbohydrate foods Effector – liver cells break down glycogen into glucose due to rise in glucagon: most body cells decrease uptake and use of glucose due to fall in insulin Blood glucose stabilised negative feedback control loop

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