Adaptations To Environment

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Adaptations To Environment

  1. 1. <ul><li>Structural adaptations to the environment </li></ul>
  2. 2. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Every species is uniquely adapted to its environment </li></ul><ul><li>This ensures the survival of the species </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Camels </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy insulation of fur on backs </li></ul><ul><li>Long eye lashes to protect eyes from sand </li></ul><ul><li>Legs long and not fatty </li></ul><ul><li>Walks on two toes protected from heat by pads of tissue </li></ul>
  4. 4. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Camels </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney reabsorbs most of the water in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Able to drink rapidly to replenish water losses – but does not store water in body (27 gallons in 10 mins!) </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates high levels of dehydration of body tissues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Camels </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates wide range of body core temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Faeces so dry they can be burned immediately </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Desert rats </li></ul><ul><li>Survive by avoiding the conditions camels thrive in </li></ul><ul><li>Live underground in burrows only coming out at night </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely if ever drinks water </li></ul>
  7. 7. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Desert rats </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply comes from the respiration of its food </li></ul><ul><li>Produces a virtually solid urine </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually no sweat glands </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Mesophytes – plants living where water is readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Xerophytes – plants living in areas where water is in short supply </li></ul><ul><li>Halophytes – plants living in salty areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Mesophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Includes native plants of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Can control their rate of transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Close their stomata at times of water stress </li></ul><ul><li>Can easily recover from short periods of wilting </li></ul>
  10. 10. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Xerophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of leaves to fine spikes, reducing transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Stem has hard thick epidermis and a waxy cuticle </li></ul><ul><li>Can fix carbon dioxide at night so stomata remain closed during the day </li></ul>
  11. 11. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Xerophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Marram grass (see notes from earlier in course) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced number of stomata sunk deep into grooves </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves roll up into cylinder shape –trapping moist air within leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Interlocking hairs reduce transpiration </li></ul>
  12. 12. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Halophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Although often surrounded by water it is usually salty </li></ul><ul><li>Actively absorb salts into their roots so roots have a lower water potential than surrounding water </li></ul><ul><li>Also have many xeromorphic features to help them conserve water </li></ul>
  13. 13. Structural adaptations to the environment <ul><li>Adaptations in humans to high altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Greater depth of breathing, higher lung capacity and larger tidal volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Blood has a higher affinity for oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the left </li></ul><ul><li>Darker skins to combat higher UV radiation levels </li></ul>

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