NOUN - PLURALS 3rd PERSON SINGULAR (PRESENT SIMPLE) SPELLING GENERAL RULE: They are usually made by adding -s to the singular or the infinitive. house houses | make makes boy boys | stop stops EXCEPTIONS: 1). Nouns (or verbs) ending in -o, -ss, -s, -sh, -ch, -x -es. tomato tomatoes | go goes boss bosses | kiss kisses dish dishes | wash washes match matches | watch watches box boxes 1.1 BUT: Foreign or abbreviated words ending in -o, add -s only. piano pianos photo photos (abrv. photograph) 2). Nouns (or verbs) ending in -y : 2.1 : Preceded by a consonant -ies. Country countries | carry carries 2.2 : Preceded by a vowel -s boy boys | say says[ONLY FOR NOUNS] 3). Nouns ending in -f or -fe -ves wife wives; life lives; knife knives; wolf wolves; self selves; calf calves; shelf shelves; leaf leaves; loaf loaves; thief thieves; half halves; sheaf sheaves.
3.1 BUT : scarf scarfs / scarves. handkerchief handkerchiefs. cliff cliffs. 4). IRREGULAR PLURALS: 4.1:Vowel changes:man men; woman women; foot feet;tooth teeth; mouse mice; goose geese;ox oxen; child children. 4.2: No change:deer; sheep. 4.3: Always singular: a). advice, information, knowledge, baggage, luggage, rubbish, furni- ture, toast. b). Mathematics, Physics, athletics, acoustics,... 4.4: Always plural: police, clothes, people, trousers, scissors, glasses,... 4.5: Compound nouns: 4.5.1: Normally the last word changes: armchair armchairs bookshelf bookshelves 4.5.2:With Man or Woman both words change: manstudent menstudents womanstudent womenstudents 4.5.3:With a preposition or adverb between two nouns, only the first one changes: sister-in-law sisters-in-law. 4.5.4: With initials: MP MPs VIP VIPs UFO UFOs