Singplur gra

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Formation of the plural of nouns and the 3rd person singular of the present simple.

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Singplur gra

  1. 1. NOUN - PLURALS 3rd PERSON SINGULAR (PRESENT SIMPLE) SPELLING GENERAL RULE: They are usually made by adding -s to the singular or the infinitive. house  houses | make  makes boy  boys | stop  stops EXCEPTIONS: 1). Nouns (or verbs) ending in -o, -ss, -s, -sh, -ch, -x  -es. tomato  tomatoes | go  goes boss  bosses | kiss  kisses dish  dishes | wash  washes match  matches | watch  watches box  boxes 1.1 BUT: Foreign or abbreviated words ending in -o, add -s only. piano  pianos photo  photos (abrv. photograph) 2). Nouns (or verbs) ending in -y : 2.1 : Preceded by a consonant -ies. Country  countries | carry  carries 2.2 : Preceded by a vowel  -s boy  boys | say  says[ONLY FOR NOUNS] 3). Nouns ending in -f or -fe  -ves wife  wives; life  lives; knife  knives; wolf  wolves; self  selves; calf  calves; shelf  shelves; leaf  leaves; loaf  loaves; thief  thieves; half  halves; sheaf  sheaves.
  2. 2. 3.1 BUT : scarf  scarfs / scarves. handkerchief  handkerchiefs. cliff  cliffs. 4). IRREGULAR PLURALS: 4.1:Vowel changes:man  men; woman  women; foot  feet;tooth  teeth; mouse  mice; goose  geese;ox  oxen; child  children. 4.2: No change:deer; sheep. 4.3: Always singular: a). advice, information, knowledge, baggage, luggage, rubbish, furni- ture, toast. b). Mathematics, Physics, athletics, acoustics,... 4.4: Always plural: police, clothes, people, trousers, scissors, glasses,... 4.5: Compound nouns: 4.5.1: Normally the last word changes: armchair  armchairs bookshelf  bookshelves 4.5.2:With Man or Woman both words change: manstudent  menstudents womanstudent  womenstudents 4.5.3:With a preposition or adverb between two nouns, only the first one changes: sister-in-law  sisters-in-law. 4.5.4: With initials: MP  MPs VIP  VIPs UFO  UFOs

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