Westward Ho!!

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Westward Ho!!

  1. 1. Key Social Reforms <ul><li>Mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Temperance </li></ul>
  2. 2. Dorothea Dix <ul><li>Girls school 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>Report to MA (reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Helped open ??mental hospitals in 11 states </li></ul>
  3. 3. Horace Mann <ul><li>Started MA public schools </li></ul><ul><li>'common' or public schools would strengthen democracy by uniting children of all social classes </li></ul><ul><li>(PBS.org) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Colleges Founded <ul><li>Amherst (1821) </li></ul><ul><li>Trinity College (1823) </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (1836) </li></ul><ul><li>Oberlin (1833) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Smithsonian Founded 1846 <ul><li>British scientist gives money to nephew/U.S. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2 nd Great Awakening <ul><li>Educated, Middle class-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>celebration of personal self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Timothy Dwight & Charles Finney </li></ul>
  7. 7. Women’s Rights <ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton </li></ul>
  8. 8. Women’s Rights <ul><li>Susan B. Anthony </li></ul>
  9. 9. So let us consider women in the 1st half of the 18 th C. <ul><li>Abigail Adams told John Adams, “Don’t forget the ladies” when he was writing the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>(the Founders promptly forgot them) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Cult of True Womanhood”  chastity, purity, virtue </li></ul><ul><li>“ cult of domesticity”  maintain a proper home (the woman’s sphere) </li></ul><ul><li>Seneca Falls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1848 “Declaration of Sentiments” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Transcendentalist <ul><li>Truth “transcends” human understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaim life from mechanized world </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Waldo Emerson  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Transcendentalist <ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>On Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to Mexican War (it’ll promote slavery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to pay tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>($ used for the war) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Communal Living <ul><li>Robert Owen  New Harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation would “supersede individual interest” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Econ. equality…Socialism?? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Religion <ul><li>Mormon faith </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Brigham Young leads them west (1846) </li></ul>
  14. 16. Mormon Trail
  15. 17. Westward Ho!! Or, how to go coast to coast in just a few years…
  16. 18. EQ- How and why did America expand during the 1840s?
  17. 19. Texas Settlement <ul><li>Stephen Austin </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico’s deal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4600 acres per family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert to Cath. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$.12 per acre to Austin (10X less than in US) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern slaveholders </li></ul>
  18. 20. Texas Independence 1836 <ul><li>Causes of Texas’ Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico slavery outlawed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes & troops in Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texas revolt & Independence 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>Mex. Gen. Santa Anna attacks Alamo </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Houston leads Texas victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured Santa Anna signs Indep. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Disputed Texas Territory
  20. 22. Pres. John Tyler S.o.S. John Calhoun
  21. 23. Admit Texas as a State?? <ul><li>North says Nay (many little slave states  ) </li></ul><ul><li>South says Yea!!! (slave states  ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fearing Brit. & France nice-nice w/ Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. Tyler/Calhoun negotiate statehood treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sen. rejects Annex… over slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polk runs on taking Texas/Oregon </li></ul>
  22. 24. James Polk
  23. 25. Texas and Oregon <ul><li>’44 Polk defeats Clay (who “molded” and “shaped” a flip-flopping image) </li></ul><ul><li>Tyler pushes admission of Texas through Congress (Feb. 1845) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more than 4 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri Comp.’s 36 o 30’ extended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1846 - Oregon Trail peaks </li></ul>
  24. 27. Disputed Texas Territory
  25. 28. Mexican War 1846-48 <ul><li>$25 m. purchase fails </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico City taken  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cali/New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$15 m. to Mex. (+$3 m.) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Land Acquisition
  27. 31. Mexican War
  28. 32. Mexican War Troop Movements

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