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Slavery in America
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Slavery in America

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  • 1. Slavery in Early America
    • Constitution Never Mentions “Slavery”
      • Many Founding Fathers were slave owners
        • Washington
        • Jefferson
      • Importation permitted until 1808
      • Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin 1793
      • The “peculiar institution”
  • 2. Cotton Gin
  • 3. Cotton Gin
    • Makes slavery appear economically viable
      • Before  25 days for 50 lbs.
      • After  1 day for 50 lbs.
    • Causes slaves to increase in value
    • “ King Cotton” bcms. South’s lifeline
      • Produced 1% of world’s total in 1793
      • By 1850 70%
      • ~ 60% of NATION’s exports
      • New England textile mills depend on it
  • 4. Importation
  • 5. The Middle Passage
  • 6. Paternalism
    • Slaves are like children and masters must watch out for them
      • Owners had vested interest in caring for slaves
        • $$ investment
        • Production
  • 7.  
  • 8. Slave Population
    • 1790 = 700,000 (approx.)
    • 1800 = 900,000 +200,000
    • 1810 = 1,200,000 +300,000
    • 1820 = 1,500,000 +300,000
    • 1830 = 2,000,000 +500,000
    • 1840 = 2,500,000 +500,000
    • 1850 = 3,200,000 +700,000
    • 1860 = 4,000,000 +800,000
  • 9. Slave Concentration 1820
  • 10. Slave Concentration 1860
  • 11.  
  • 12. Slavery Review
    • Founding Fathers/Constitution
    • Slave ownership #s
    • Importation
    • Paternalism
    • Eli Whitney
    • Cotton Kingdom
    • Growth of slavery
    • Concentration of slavery
  • 13. Anti-slavery Movements
    • American Colonization Society (1817)
      • Liberia founded
      • Repatriation of former slaves
    • Gag Rule (1836-1844)
    • 2 nd Great Awakening Inspires
    • Theodore Dwight Weld’s American Slavery As It Is
  • 14. Concentrations of Slaves
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17. Frederick Douglass
  • 18. William Lloyd Garrison
  • 19. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • b. Litchfield, daughter of minister
    • Educ. @ Hartford Female Seminary
    • Hubby was Bible prof.
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin ‘52
      • response to Fugitive Slave Act 1850
      • Sold 300,000
  • 20. Escape Routes
  • 21. Major Slave Rebellions
    • Denmark Vesey 1822
      • Free black
      • Plan discovered
      • 36 executed
      • EFFECT
        • slave codes
  • 22. Major Rebellions cont.
    • Nat Turner 1831
      • Visions inspire him to “fight against the Serpent” in VA
      • 40 “Rebels”  stabbed, shot and clubbed 55 white people to death
      • Hanged and skinned on 11/11
      • 55 blacks officially executed
      • EFFECTs
        • Blacks not compliant
        • Harsher slave laws
  • 23. Slave Codes Prohibitions
    • buy or sell goods w/out master’s approval
    • legally marry
    • use alcohol
    • assemble w/out a white man
    • church w/out white man or approved black pastor
    • be taught read or write ~ fines/jail
    • testify in court against whites
    • tried w/slaveholder jury (no blacks)
    • own gun
    • keep family together
    • walk freely~ had to carry pass (even if free black)
    • ~ curfew
  • 24. Abolition of Slavery
  • 25. Political Parties Beliefs: Antebellum America
  • 26. Whigs
    • Born by National Republicans in 1836
    • JQA and Clay were leaders
    • Political Base
      • middle class
      • “ market farmers”
      • skilled native-born workers
      • N.E. & New York
    • Generally bald (hence the name)
    • Loose construction of Const.
    • Nationalists
    • Pro-internal improvements, tariffs
  • 27. Democrats
    • Strict construction
    • Opposed fed. gov’t. regulation of slavery
    • Opposed national bank
    • Opposed internal improvements
    • Lower tariff (southerners, esp.)
    • Immigrants join
  • 28. “ Log Cabin and Hard Cider”  1 st Whig Election (1840)
    • William Henry Harrison elected
      • “ simple man” (really aristocrat from VA)
      • Pro-national bank
      • Congress should regulate spread of slavery
  • 29. Winners in the 1840s
    • 1840 Harrison  Tyler (Whig)
    • 1844 Polk (Democrat)
      • Pro-Texas annexation
      • Pro-Oregon from Britain (54 o 40’ or fight)
    • 1848 Taylor (“hero of BV”) (Whig)
      • No platform
  • 30. Election of 1852 (“it’s the end of the world as we know it”)
    • Whigs descent begins  best leaders d.
    • End of national parties &…
    • Begin. of SECTIONAL parties
  • 31. American (Know-Nothing) Party ( K now- K nothing Party)
    • Anti-Catholic
    • Anti-immigrant (nativist)
    • “ Americans Must Rule America”
  • 32. Republican Party
    • Formed as reaction to K-N Act (1854)
    • Anti-slavery origins
    • Home to Whigs, N. Dems., Free Soil, Know-Nothings
  • 33. Election of 1856
  • 34. Sectionalism & the Civil War
    • Missouri Compromise 1820
    • Wilmot Proviso 1846
    • Compromise of 1850
    • Kansas-Nebraska 1854
    • Dred Scott v. San(d)ford 1857
    • Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
    • John Brown’s Raid 1859
    • Election of Republican Abraham Lincoln 1860
  • 35. Missouri Compromise (1820)
  • 36. Mexican Cession Raises Questions
    • Lands of the Southwest are added to the U.S
      • Will they be SLAVE or FREE??
      • 2 major compromises will try and settle the matter…but fail. in 1848
    • Popular sovereignty is introduced in 1850
      • New territories may vote to be free or slave
  • 37. Compromise of 1850
  • 38. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  • 39. Congressional Elections 1854
  • 40. Bleeding Kansas
  • 41. Dred Scott v. San(d)ford
    • b. 1799, d. 1857
    • Lived in Illinois/Wisconsin (free areas)
    • Sued for his freedom based on having lived in a free state
  • 42. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    • U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney
    • (Mr. Excitement!)
    • Slaves are not citizens, so Scott cannot sue
    • Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional (Congress cannot forbid Southerners from bringing their property anywhere)
  • 43. John Brown “The Meteor”