Industrialization And Reform 1820 1850s

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Industrialization And Reform 1820 1850s

  1. 1. Industrialization and Reform <ul><li>Essential Questions - </li></ul><ul><li>How did industrialization, social reform, and philosophical movements influence the direction of American life? </li></ul><ul><li>How did people respond to the new challenges of industrial life? </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Modern industrialization brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Understand causes of industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the effects of industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint presentation  industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming effects of industrialization </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3 Revolutions (1820s-1850s) <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Social Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul>
  4. 4. New Immigrants <ul><li>Do you know where they were from?? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Irish Immigration = 2 m. in 20yrs
  6. 6. Irish Population % in U.S. Today
  7. 7. The Marshall Court Decisions <ul><li>Fletcher v. Peck </li></ul><ul><li>Dartmouth v. Woodward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Daniel Webster  ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States cannot impair the obligation of contracts </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Marshall Court Decisions <ul><li>Gibbons v. Ogden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed. Gov’t. regulates interstate commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulton’s steamboat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claremont (1809)  </li></ul></ul>                                      
  9. 9. A Market Society <ul><li>The Factory System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel Slater est.shed America’s first factory in 1790 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First large-scale American factory (1814 Waltham, MA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowell followed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ interchangeable parts” that could be rapidly assembled into standardized finished products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South lags behind North </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Lowell Mills
  11. 11. Lowell Mills
  12. 12. Water Power
  13. 13. The Locks at Lowell (32 ft. drop)
  14. 14. Boott Mill (1835)
  15. 15. Lowell Boardinghouse
  16. 16. Morning Bell at Lowell <ul><li>1 st Ring </li></ul><ul><li>4:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Last Ring </li></ul><ul><li>10:00 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lowell Factory Church (1825)
  18. 18. Rise of factories
  19. 19. Samuel Morse and his Telegraph
  20. 20. A New Economy <ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements costs and linked farmers to markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toll roads did little </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved water transportation did most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steamboat/ canals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased the speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lowered the expense of commerce $100- $10 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Railroads & Canals Example <ul><li>Robert Fulton’s Steamboat 1809 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Fulton’s Folly) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erie Canal (1825) </li></ul><ul><li>(Clinton’s Ditch) </li></ul><ul><li>Catskill to Ithaca Railroad (1928) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Travel During the Erie Canal Era   $6/Ton $100/Ton Cost 9 Days 15-45 Days Amount of Time Line Boat 2 Mules Wagon 8 Horses Method Canal (freight) Dirt Road (freight)
  23. 26. Connecting the Great Lakes w/ Miss. River
  24. 27. Railroads, Canals, & Turnpikes
  25. 30. Travel Times from New York City in 1800 and 1830 • pg. 315 Travel Times from New York City in 1800 and 1830
  26. 31. Table 9.1 • pg. 317
  27. 32. The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, 1800–1820 • pg. 316 The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, 1800–1820
  28. 33. A New Economy (con’t) <ul><li>Inventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney’s cotton gin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McCormick’s reaper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unfree Westward Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>App. 1 million slaves moved from to the Deep South between 1800 and 1860 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trading became a well-organized business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slave coffles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton became the empire of liberty’s most important export </li></ul></ul>
  29. 34. Social Reformers
  30. 35. Dorothea Dix <ul><li>Girls school 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>Report to MA (reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Helped open mental hospitals in 11 states </li></ul>
  31. 36. Horace Mann <ul><li>Started MA public schools </li></ul><ul><li>'common' or public schools would strengthen democracy by uniting children of all social classes </li></ul><ul><li>(PBS.org) </li></ul>
  32. 37. Colleges Founded <ul><li>Amherst (1821) </li></ul><ul><li>Trinity College (1823) </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (1836) </li></ul><ul><li>Oberlin (1833) </li></ul>
  33. 38. The Smithsonian Founded 1846 <ul><li>British scientist gives money to nephew/U.S. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Women’s Rights <ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton </li></ul>
  35. 40. Women’s Rights <ul><li>Susan B. Anthony </li></ul>
  36. 41. So let us consider women in the 1st half of the 18 th C. <ul><li>Adams  “Don’t forget the ladies” </li></ul><ul><li>“The Cult of True Womanhood” </li></ul><ul><li>“cult of domesticity” </li></ul><ul><li>Seneca Falls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1848 “Declaration of Sentiments” </li></ul></ul>
  37. 42. Transcendentalist <ul><li>Truth “transcends” human understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaim life from mechanized world </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Waldo Emerson  </li></ul>
  38. 43. Transcendentalist <ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>On Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to Mexican War (it’ll promote slavery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to pay tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>($ used for the war) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 44. Communal Living <ul><li>Robert Owen  New Harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation would “supersede individual interest” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Econ. equality…Socialism?? </li></ul></ul>
  40. 46. 2 nd Great Awakening <ul><li>Educated, Middle class-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>celebration of personal self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Timothy Dwight & Charles Finney </li></ul>
  41. 47. Religion <ul><li>Mormon faith </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Brigham Young leads them west (1846) </li></ul>
  42. 48. Mormon Trail
  43. 49. The Trail Today
  44. 50. Some Major Trails West
  45. 51. Land Acquisition

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