Tema 24

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Tema 24

  1. 1. UNIT 24 TECHNOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIAL. THE COMPUTER
  2. 2. 1- TECHNOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIAL. <ul><li>1.1. VISUAL MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. AUDITORY MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIAL </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1.1. VISUAL MATERIAL <ul><li>A) the blackboard or chalkboard . It is a powerful focal point and things can be erased from it. </li></ul><ul><li>But work on the blackboard can be untidy and it can be improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Haycraft gives suggestions to make use of the blackboard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write clearly and with big letters (you can divide the blackboard in sections). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean it when it is crowded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never address the whole class when facing the blackboard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean it after use. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pedagogical use: it has a lot of potential: </li></ul><ul><li>To present the language, to practice drills, pronunciations, questions, written form, copy words, written exercises and games. The children can take part in the exercise as they like writing. Children can point, do dictations, exercises or correcting. Other interesting boards are proposed by Betty Morgan: the flannel graph and magnet board. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>B) the overhead projector (OHP): </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: this device projects horizontally placed trnasparencies onto a screen. Transparencies are made of special cellophane paper that can be written or drawn on during the lesson by both water-based pens or spirit-based pens. It is a versatile aid as apart from doing the same as a board it (according to Mary Underwood): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the teacher face the class while using it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is comfortable as you write horizontally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be colourful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparencies are photocopied or done by hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material can be prepared in advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The material is re-usable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can cover information to hide it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No chalk or dust. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Pedagogical use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting dictations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot the differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guess the drawing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>songs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>C) the press: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: newspapers and magazines are valuable as they connect the class with the real world. Although difficult to use in low competence classes, they are motivating, easy to find, cheap and varied. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting out pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracting information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking the tracher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using cuts outs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding sections </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>D) other visual materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Flashcards: pictures or words. They are useful for presenting vocabulary, listening comprehension, substitutions drills, sequencing, reviewing, bingo games… </li></ul><ul><li>Posters and friezes: useful to stick on the walls. More complex language can be shown: prepositions, opposites, alphabet months, seasons, comparatives, the weather… </li></ul><ul><li>Realia: novelty catches our attention. It is connected to the real world and manipulated. It can be used for many reasons: present vocabulary, describe objects, props for dialogues, games… </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1.2. AUDITORY MATERIAL <ul><li>They bring the outside world into the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>A) tape recorder and cd player: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: it’s an essential aid in language classes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher’s own voice is the most powerful auditory aid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They give a model of English native speaker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide variety d vouces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s voice is given a rest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The recording can be played several times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The recording can be stopped at any point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical use: to present new language, to recognise and identify sounds and intonation patterns, to pratice drills, to practice listening comprehension, to listen to songs, to record student’s voices. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>B) the radio: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the teacher can adapt the listenings (record pieces and make them guess what it is). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical use: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accents, attitudes (sad, happy…) guess the type of programme. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>C) language laboratory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: individual practice CALL (computer assisted language learning) are becoming obsolete, but they are a good drill, develop individual work and teachers can monitor students. But they don’t give practice in real communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive equipment and only aid, not a complete system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical use: consolodation, revision, testing… there are two types of language laboratory: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio-active laboratories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio-comparative laboratories (like the first but with recordings of student’s own voices). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1.3. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIAL <ul><li>Double advantage: visual and auditory, and it is contextualised. </li></ul><ul><li>A) Television: TV programmes are authentic material for children.easy to get British or American programmes, cartoons, films, news. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: they must be recorded, so you don’t have to watch whatever’s on. It requires high level. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical use: whatching lives, different accents, seeing cities, villages… </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>B) VCR and DVD: </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: sequences can be stopped, replayed, separated… it comprises sound and vision, and you can freeze the imag. Thye can be especially published, TV programmes, films… </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher must ensure about the level, age, length, and create a good presentation of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical use: it presents new language, practice listening, echo what is said, replay, describe, reproduce, observe non- verbal language, guess, predict, translate, role play, put in order, dictation… </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2- THE COMPUTER <ul><li>Internet is the most sophisticated medium </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2.1 ADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING <ul><li>Motivation, interaction, repeatability, comprehensible input, variesty of tasks, autonomy, personalisation, learning styles, pleasant classroom atmosphere, real communication, skill integration, aunthentic, real material, pupil cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>For teachers computers allow easy preparation, help to find real material, exchange of ideas, improve their English, prepare attractive presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: expensive, changes, need of practice and it ca be tiring for children. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2.2. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS <ul><li>A computer is a programmed electronic device that perfoms high speed mathematical or logical operations, assembles, stores or processes information. Computer have both sofware and hardware. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Hardware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass storage Device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input device: Keyboard and mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output device: screen and printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU (central Procesing Unit): the heart of the computer. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Software categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System software: operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software: programmes than do real work: word processors, databases, games… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia applications: texts, graphics, video animations </li></ul><ul><li>CDROM: compact disc read only memory </li></ul><ul><li>DVD: Digital versatil disc </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: Interconnected system of networks that connect computers around the world (it comes from ARANET) </li></ul><ul><li>CALL: in 1980s replaced by TELL tchnology enhanced language learning. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 2.3. PEDAGOGICAL USE <ul><li>Always ensure to connect the activities to the Curriculum. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation stage: computers can create a context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice stage: drills, grammar exercises, vocabulary, looking for words… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production stage: word processors for writings, Internet to look for information, download useful storage, use applications, publishing, write to penfriends… </li></ul></ul>

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