Reformations and religious wars

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  • Reformations and religious wars

    1. 1. Reformations and Religious Wars1500-1600<br />Chapter 14<br />
    2. 2. Causes of the Reformation<br />Babylonian Captivity<br />Great Schism- 1377-1417<br />Rejected Conciliar Movement<br />Corruption of the Catholic Church<br />
    3. 3. Corruption of the Catholic Church<br />Simony- sale of church offices<br />Pluralism- an official holding more than 1 office at a time<br />Absenteeism- an official not participating but receiving payment<br />Nepotism- favoring family members when appointing church officials<br />Moral decline of the clergy- drinking, gambling, indulgence, neglect of celibacy<br />Clerical Ignorance- many illiterate priests<br />Sale of Indulgences- people paying money to absolve their sins<br />
    4. 4. Critics of the Catholic Church<br />John Wyclif<br />John Hus<br />Thomas á Kempis<br />Erasmus<br />Martin Luther<br />
    5. 5. Martin Luther (1483-1546)<br />Augustinian friar; professor at University of Wittenburg<br />The pope needed more money to pay for St. Peter’s cathedral-authorized the selling of indulgences<br />Johann Tetzel<br />95 Theses<br />October 31, 1517<br />
    6. 6. Defied pope by refusing to recant<br />Wanted to reform Catholic Church at first<br />Debate with Johann Eck<br />Diet of Worms<br />Excommunicated by Pope Leo X 1520<br />Edict of Worms- outlawed as heretic<br />Confessions of Augsburg (15300<br />Phillip Melanchthon<br />
    7. 7. Protestant Thought<br />Salvation through faith alone<br />Bible was sole authority<br />Only 2 valid sacraments- baptism and communion<br />“priesthood of all believers”<br />Rejected Catholic monastic ideas about poverty, chastity, and obedience<br />Consubstantiation<br />
    8. 8. Spread of Reformation<br />Leaders feared revolution<br />Peasants’ unhappy and revolted<br />German Peasants’ War<br />1525<br />Northern German states<br />Denmark and Sweden<br />Charles V sought to stop spread Protestantism<br />League of Schmalkden<br />Habsburg-Valois Wars<br />
    9. 9. Spread of Protestantism<br />Anabaptists<br />Ulrich Zwingli<br />John Calvin<br />Calvinism<br />John Knox<br />Presbyterianism<br />Dutch Reformed Church<br />Huguenots<br />Puritans<br />Eastern Europe<br />
    10. 10. Reformation and Marriage<br />Marriage not a sacrament<br />Luther married to former nun<br />Zwingli married widow<br />Women subject to men<br />Divorce and remarriage<br />
    11. 11. Reformation and German Politics<br />Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty<br />Political Impact<br />Changing allies and political maneuvers<br />
    12. 12. Reformation in England and Ireland<br />King Henry VIII<br />Church of England<br />Supremacy Act of 1534<br />Edward VI<br />Protestant<br />Bloody Mary<br />Catholic<br />Elizabeth I<br />Protestant<br />
    13. 13. The Catholic Reformation<br />Holy Office<br />The Council of Trent<br />Jesuits<br />
    14. 14. Violence<br />France<br />St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre<br />Edict of Nantes<br />Netherlands<br />Witch-Hunts<br />

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