Contemporary learning theories and the Suzuki MethodPresentation Transcript
THE PARALLELS OF THE SUZUKI METHOD ANDCONTEMPORARY LEARNING THEORIES Shawn Riley Psychology of Music Teaching
Dr. Shinichi Suzuki• B. October 17, 1898• D. January 26, 1998• Son of the founder of Japan‟s largest violin factory• In his early adulthood, Suzuki became familiar with Western Music and studied the violin in Germany• Mentored by Freud and Einstein• By end of WWII, he decided to devote his life to the musical education of children in Japan• Dr. Suzuki founded Talent Education in 1945 at the Matsumoto Music School in Matsumoto, Japan
PHILOSOPHY AND TEACHING:THE SUZUKI METHOD IS BORN Designed a structured and effective method of violin instruction His method of teaching is based on his own life experiences, philosophies and intuition Suzuki put into practice independently created theories These theories parallel to the educational theories of modern researchers and psychologists
HIS PHILOSOPHY “The destiny of a “All children child is in their have talent.” parent‟s hands.” “Once the „seed‟ of ability“What does not is planted, it exist in the has to be environment carefully and cannot be patiently developed.” tended.” “Why do all children possess the marvelous ability to speak their “First character, mother tongue quite effortlessly? then ability.” Therein lies the secret of how to educate all human ability.”
NURTURED AT A YOUNG AGEWolfgang Amadeus Mozart Tiger Woods, age 3
Howard Gardner states in his book “Frames of Mind” that “one will not becomea great chess player…in the absence of a chessboard.”
BENJAMIN BLOOM American Psychologist and Researcher Addresses issues of relevance that supports the Suzuki Method regarding the effects of the environment and parental support on talent. Does genetics effect one‟s intelligence and talent? Research conducted where identical twins were separated at birth Findings: The environment, not genetics, can influence IQ up to 20 points What is the common thread among individuals of outstanding achievement? Research studied the life histories of 100 outstanding people including musicians Findings: Human beings born with enormous talent and promise demonstrate the extraordinary power of parental support.
EARLY CHILDHOOD MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT There is significant research in biology and neurophysiology. The research supports Dr. Suzuki‟s philosophy of the importance of an early musical education. A child‟s brain from age 0-3 is 2.5 times more active than an adult brain. There are critical periods of growth where learning can be easily obtained. Proper stimulation at the beginning of life forms ability that can never happen again after the first few years of life.
JEAN PIAGET: EARLY MUSICDEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor Stage (0-2) Preoperational Stage (2-4) Learns through curiosity Time for language development Imitates sights and sounds In the Suzuki Method, a child is Learns kinesthetic skills most ready to begin violin Child‟s intelligence is formed lessons during this stage. The more the child is exposed to a musical environment at this stage, Violin instruction is deeply the more musical ability they will rooted in language develop. development. In the Suzuki Method, at this stage the child is listening and observing. The mother may begin to start her violin instruction and daily practice while the child observes.
SUZUKI TEACHING METHOD: THE MOTHER-TONGUE APPROACH Every child learns their language. Music can be taught in the same way! Early exposure Imitation Rote Before Note Daily practice and listening Review Positive Reinforcement Repetition
SIMILARITIES: SUZUKI METHOD AND MUSIC LEARNING THEORY Edwin Gordon‟s research finds that music learning is parallel to language learning. Children should be surrounded by music at an early age A positive, reinforcing and repetitive environment nurtures aptitude A child must listen and observe before introduced to a musical instrument Rote learning before music reading, for this is developmentally appropriate
JEROME BRUNER‟S THEORY OF INSTRUCTION: KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION A body of knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily understood by the learner Knowledge can be represented in a variety of ways that represents the cognitive development of the person Music can be represented in enactive, iconic and symbolic modes: simplest to most advanced representation The Suzuki Method is similar The student’s knowledge can first be represented through listening, playing and imitation (enactive mode) before a student is ready to comprehend their understanding in iconic and symbolic modes.
Images that Read and WritePlay The Violin Represent Music Music
Suzuki Parental Role To create a nurturinglearning environment at home by acting as the HOME TEACHER with the use of POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT & SCAFFOLDING
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT According to the research of B.F. Skinner: Behavior that has positive consequences will reoccur Punishment is not effective in eliminating or reinforcing a behavior These same principles are used within the role of the parent as the home teacher in the Suzuki Method. Responsible for creating a nurturing and stimulating home environment If practice is fun and rewarding the child will be more likely to accomplish and enjoy practicing Parent should not focus too much on a child‟s mistakes and always reinforce the good Parent should value and praise their child and notice the everyday accomplishments
SCAFFOLDING Developed by Jerome Bruner Child learns to become a member of a community by learning from more knowledgeable members of the community This happens within the Suzuki Method Parent learns the violin before the child does to become the expert With the guidance of the private Suzuki teacher, the parent becomes the home teacher and practice partner of the child As the child becomes more knowledgeable, the parent will step in and help less The ultimate goal is for the child to become independent in playing and practicing
THE SUZUKI METHOD: THE CURRICULUM Built on an anthology of musical works spanning through 10 books The scope and sequence is exceptional spanning from “Twinkle Variations” to Mozart‟s “Violin Concerto No. 4 in D Major,” or from simple to most complex The Suzuki student keeps an active repertoire in place. They will consistently learn new works while reviewing the old in their daily practice. The foundational concepts are always reinforced and strengthened as the student progresses The teacher adds advanced and new concepts to works that the student has already mastered. The curriculum builds the foundation for mastery by continuing to return to learned works with a new understanding as the student‟s knowledge and experience grows.
THE SUZUKI CURRICULUM AND BRUNER‟S SPIRAL CURRICULUM A teacher‟s goal is to give instruction that prompts cognitive development that matches a student‟s cognitive ability Content should be first taught in a simple fashion and then taught in a more complex fashion when the student is developmentally ready The foundational content should always be revisited to strengthen knowledge and to ensure mastery
Schema Theory with in theSuzuki Method In ThirdMeaningful learning occurs in the PositionSuzuki Instruction that can beexplained by the Schema Theory. Rhythmic With1. When a student engages in a Variations Vibrato new experience, they will seek understanding through prior experience Twinkle2. Alteration to a student‟s schema will occur in a minimal way.3. Over time their knowledge will grow!
SUZUKI METHOD:STUDENT CENTERED CURRICULUM Similar to Thorndike‟s findings If the student is ready to accomplish a task, it is pleasurable. If the student is ready to accomplish a task, not to do so is annoying. If the student is not ready to accomplish a task and is instructed to, it is annoying. The Suzuki Student is allowed to progress at his or her own rate Building a foundation and learning with high comprehension and mastery is more important than to get through all of the songs. “Education is more important than instruction.” – Shinichi Suzuki
THE SUZUKI METHOD: CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHGroup Class Learn to play with others Review materials presented in private lesson Opportunity to lead group and show leadership Opportunity to play games while reviewing, violin is fun! Consists of students of many levels, novice and expertLev Vygotsky: SocialConstructivism Students, novice and expert, learn from each other in a social context Zone of Proximal Development Teacher alternates works students play in three levels, mostly focusing on pieces in the zone of proximal development All are engaged, all benefit from the social context. Students will play if they know the work and observe if they do not.
THE RECITAL: A SOURCE OFMOTIVATION Parallel to Albert Bandura‟s The Recital Self-Efficacy Motivational Theory Joyous and motivational The child forms an Variety of types from informal expectancy of how good they to formal will be in the future Milestone of achievement Forms the belief that one can achieve the desired outcome Graduation Recital Help learners to set specific Annual recital where all and attainable goals students in the studio participate
THE SUZUKI METHOD‟SHUMANISTIC APPROACH TO LEARNING The end goal of the Suzuki Method is to help to nurture a kind, giving and cultured human being. A child will build valuable skills of work ethnic and dedication while understanding the importance to always strive to reach their full potential. Finally, the child will develop an appreciation and love for music that will last a lifetime. This idea is parallel to Maslow‟s “Hierarchy of Needs” where the ultimate lifetime goal is to reach self-actualization.
IN CONCLUSION: A quote from Dr. Suzuki found in “Nurtured by Love.”“My prayer is that all children on this globe may become fine human beings, happy people of superior ability, and I am devoting all my energies to making this come about, for I am convinced that all children are born with this potential.”