Exosomes lecture

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Lecture presented by Dr.Fatma Taha at BIOCHEM Cairo 2014 organized by Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cairo University. BIOCHEM Cairo 2014 is a Scribe event ( www.scribeofegypt.com)

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Exosomes lecture

  1. 1. Extracellular membrane vesicles (EMV) FATMA MOHAMED TAHA Assistant Professor of Medical Biochemistry Faculty of Medicine ,Cairo University
  2. 2. Extracellular membrane vesicles (EMV) are phospholipid bilayer - enclosed vesicles from eukaryotic cells. Extracellular vesicle classification can be based on their cellular origin or biological function; alternatively, extracellular vesicles can be categorized on the basis of their biogenesis pathways. Samir ELAndaloussi, Imre Mäger, Xandra O. Breakefield and Matthew J. A. Wood . Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities , Nature review drug discovery, 2013 vol 12 May 347-357 Extracellular membrane vesicles (EMV) are phospholipid bilayer - enclosed vesicles from eukaryotic cells. Extracellular vesicle classification can be based on their cellular origin or biological function; alternatively, extracellular vesicles can be categorized on the basis of their biogenesis pathways. Samir ELAndaloussi, Imre Mäger, Xandra O. Breakefield and Matthew J. A. Wood . Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities , Nature review drug discovery, 2013 vol 12 May 347-357 Extracellular membrane vesicles (EMV) are phospholipid bilayer - enclosed vesicles from eukaryotic cells. Extracellular vesicle classification can be based on their cellular origin or biological function; alternatively, extracellular vesicles can be categorized on the basis of their biogenesis pathways. Samir ELAndaloussi, Imre Mäger, Xandra O. Breakefield and Matthew J. A. Wood . Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities , Nature review drug discovery, 2013 vol 12 May 347-357
  3. 3. EMV classification according to Cellular origin and biological function : Ectosomes: vesicles secreted by neutrophils or monocytes Microparticles: vesicles shed from platelets in blood or endothelial cells Tolerosomes: vesicles purified from serum of antigen-fed mice Prostatosomes: vesicles extracted from seminal fluid Cardiosomes: vesicles secreted by cardiomyocytes Vexosomes: vesicles linked with adeno-associated virus vectors Samir ELAndaloussi, Imre Mäger, Xandra O. Breakefield and Matthew J. A. Wood . Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities , Nature review drug discovery, 2013; vol 12 May 347-357 EMV classification according to Cellular origin and biological function : Ectosomes: vesicles secreted by neutrophils or monocytes Microparticles: vesicles shed from platelets in blood or endothelial cells Tolerosomes: vesicles purified from serum of antigen-fed mice Prostatosomes: vesicles extracted from seminal fluid Cardiosomes: vesicles secreted by cardiomyocytes Vexosomes: vesicles linked with adeno-associated virus vectors Samir ELAndaloussi, Imre Mäger, Xandra O. Breakefield and Matthew J. A. Wood . Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities , Nature review drug discovery, 2013; vol 12 May 347-357 EMV classification according to Cellular origin and biological function : Ectosomes: vesicles secreted by neutrophils or monocytes Microparticles: vesicles shed from platelets in blood or endothelial cells Tolerosomes: vesicles purified from serum of antigen-fed mice Prostatosomes: vesicles extracted from seminal fluid Cardiosomes: vesicles secreted by cardiomyocytes Vexosomes: vesicles linked with adeno-associated virus vectors Samir ELAndaloussi, Imre Mäger, Xandra O. Breakefield and Matthew J. A. Wood . Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities , Nature review drug discovery, 2013; vol 12 May 347-357
  4. 4. Distinct biogenesis pathways lead to different types of EMV. These vesicles include exosomes, shedding microvesicles (SMVs) and apoptotic blebs (ABs), many of which exhibit pleiotropic biological functions. Distinct biogenesis pathways lead to different types of EMV. These vesicles include exosomes, shedding microvesicles (SMVs) and apoptotic blebs (ABs), many of which exhibit pleiotropic biological functions. Cell Mol Life Sci 68 (2011) 2667–2688.
  5. 5. Biogenesis and Release of EMV JCB 2013;200:373-383 2013 ;12,347-3 57
  6. 6. History of exosomes
  7. 7. They were described in 1983, as secreted by reticulocytes, exosomes became of interest for immunologists in 1996, when they were proposed to play a role in antigen presentation. More recently, the finding that exosomes carry genetic materials, mRNA and miRNA, has been a major breakthrough in the field, unveiling their capacity to vehicle genetic messages. It is now clear that not only immune cells but probably all cell types are able to secrete exosomes. Ange´ lique Bobrie , Marina Colombo , Grac¸ a Raposo,∗ and Clotilde Thery. Exosome Secretion: Molecular Mechanisms and Roles in Immune Responses . Traffic, 2011; 12: 1659 – 1668 They were described in 1983, as secreted by reticulocytes, exosomes became of interest for immunologists in 1996, when they were proposed to play a role in antigen presentation. More recently, the finding that exosomes carry genetic materials, mRNA and miRNA, has been a major breakthrough in the field, unveiling their capacity to vehicle genetic messages. It is now clear that not only immune cells but probably all cell types are able to secrete exosomes. Ange´ lique Bobrie , Marina Colombo , Grac¸ a Raposo,∗ and Clotilde Thery. Exosome Secretion: Molecular Mechanisms and Roles in Immune Responses . Traffic, 2011; 12: 1659 – 1668 They were described in 1983, as secreted by reticulocytes, exosomes became of interest for immunologists in 1996, when they were proposed to play a role in antigen presentation. More recently, the finding that exosomes carry genetic materials, mRNA and miRNA, has been a major breakthrough in the field, unveiling their capacity to vehicle genetic messages. It is now clear that not only immune cells but probably all cell types are able to secrete exosomes. Ange´ lique Bobrie , Marina Colombo , Grac¸ a Raposo,∗ and Clotilde Thery. Exosome Secretion: Molecular Mechanisms and Roles in Immune Responses . Traffic, 2011; 12: 1659 – 1668
  8. 8. Exosome composition Virol. 2011;85:12844-12854 A complete database of exosomal proteins can be found at ExoCarta (exocarta.ludwig.edu.au/) (Mathivanan et al., 2012).
  9. 9. Exosome composition Frontiers in Genetics published: 20 April 2012 Diversity of RNA molecules shuttled by exosomes comes from latest reported ExoCarta entries (Mathivanan et al., 2012) comprising 2375 mRNA and 1630 miRNA molecules.
  10. 10. Interaction of exosomes with recipient cells
  11. 11. Exosomes as intercellular communicators Exosomes as intercellular communicators Exosomes as intercellular communicators
  12. 12. Proposed antigen presenting functions of exosomes
  13. 13. Cell communication through cell-fate signals carrying exosomes in tumor microenvironment . J of extracellular vesicles Vol 2, 2013
  14. 14. Proposed immunological functions of exosomes secreted by tumors
  15. 15. The mechanisms of stem cell exosome/microvesicle- mediated regeneration of injured tissues. Lee Y et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012;21:R125-R134
  16. 16. A suggested hypothesis on the role of exosomes released from a damaged heart as a potential intercellular communicator. Circulation Research. 2014;114:333-344
  17. 17. Postulated roles of exosomes/microvesicles in neural cell communication Front. Physiol., 30 April 2012
  18. 18. Exosomes: vehicles for the transfer of toxic proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases Frontiers in physiology published: 03 May 2012
  19. 19. Exosomes as a Potential Diagnostic and their Therapeutic Approaches Exosomes as a Potential Diagnostic and their Therapeutic Approaches
  20. 20. 12,347-3 57 (2013)
  21. 21. In vitro studies have documented that the Hemopurifier captures exosomes underlying cancer, including colorectal, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian, and breast cancer. Aethlon Hemopurifier. (PRNewsFoto/Aethlon Medical, Inc.) SAN DIEGO, March 8, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Aethlon Medical, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: AEMD) In vitro studies have documented that the Hemopurifier captures exosomes underlying cancer, including colorectal, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian, and breast cancer. Aethlon Hemopurifier. (PRNewsFoto/Aethlon Medical, Inc.) SAN DIEGO, March 8, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Aethlon Medical, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: AEMD) In vitro studies have documented that the Hemopurifier captures exosomes underlying cancer, including colorectal, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian, and breast cancer. Aethlon Hemopurifier. (PRNewsFoto/Aethlon Medical, Inc.) SAN DIEGO, March 8, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Aethlon Medical, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: AEMD)
  22. 22. EMV-based therapies www.frontiersin.org June 2012 | Volume 3 | Article 228

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