The Age of DiscoveryAt the beginning of the 15th century, Europeans knewlittle more than Europe and the lands around theMediterranean and the Black SeasThe existence of India, China and Japan was shown byMarco Polos journeys and the trade routes that broughtsilk and spices to EuropeThe rest of the world was a total mystery. Europeans hadnot explored the African and Asian interior, and they didnot know that America and Oceania existed
Reasons for the discoveriesThey needed to find new trade routes to the East. In 1453 the Turks conquered Constantinople. This interrupted the trade routes between Europe and the Far East.Technical advances New maps called portulan charts. They showed the coastline and any obstacles at seas. Navigational instruments, suchs as the compass, the astrolabe and the quadrant, were developed Ships, such as caravels, were improved.
Portuguese expeditionPortugal had been looking for a new sea route to India around the coast of AfricaThe Portuguese monarchs and Prince Henry the Navigator organised various expeditionsThe Madeira Island were discovered in 1418, and the Azores in 1431Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa (1488), opening the sea route to the Indian oceanVasco de Gama reached India (1498).
Portulan Henry the Navigator chart caravelMonument in Lisbon which Bartolomeu Dias commemorates the discoveries Vasco da Gama
Spanish and Portuguese rivalryThe Crown of Castile was Portugals biggest rival in the search for new routes to IndiaThe Castilians decided to sail to the west across the Atlantic, circumnavigating the Earth.
How was America discovered?Christopher Columbus was a Genoese sailor. He was convinced he could reach the eastern coast of Asia by crossing the Atlantic Ocean.He presented his project to the Catholic Monarchs who decided to finance the expedition.On 3 August 1492, an expedition of three ships, the Pinta, the Niña and the Santa MaríaColumbus calculations were wrong. He thought the Earth was much smaller than it actually wasThe crew complained, but Columbus persuaded
After the first expedition, Columbus made three more expeditions to explore and establish Castilian dominion of these territories.On the second voyage, a faster and safer route to America was found.On his last two voyages, Columbus explored part of the coast of Central and South AmericaIn 1504, Columbus finally returned to Spain, where he died two years later, still firmly convinced that he had reached IndiaHowever, in 1502 an Italian sailor, Amerigo Vespucci, had already realised that these lands belonged to a new continent. Later, the continent was named
What was the first voyage around the world?In 1519, an expedition of five boats left Seville, captained by Ferdinand Magellan, with his second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano.Their goal was to find a passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to the Moluccas, or Spice Islands in AsiaIn 1520, they found a strait connecting both oceans. It was later named Strait of Magellan.They sailed on to the Philippines. There, Magellan was killed in a fight with the natives, and Elcano took command.The expediton headed for the Moluccas and
What were the consequences of the discoveries?Portugal and Spain created great overseas empires.To prevent problems between the two countries, unexplored regions were divided between them in the Treaty of Tordesillas, in 1494. A line of demarcation was established. Portugal received territories east of the line: Africa, Asia and Brazil, which was discoverd later. Castile received territories west of the line: most of the territories in the Americas.These explorations marked the beginning of European supremacy over the rest of the world.
Columbus travels Treaty of Tordesilla sMagellan, Elcanoand their journey
The discoveries brought major progress in science. Knowledge of the lands and oceans on the planet became more accurate Many new plant and animal species were discovered. All this contributed to developments in geography, natural sciences and cartographyOne of the most important consequences of the discoveries was the contact between different peoples Knowledge was excanged However, diseases introduced by the Europeans caused a dramatic delcine in the indigenous population of America
Expressing quantityExample:Not very much was known about India, China and JapanThere were a number of technical advances wich improved navigation
Expressing abilityExample:Ships could travel longer distancesBoth sides were able to transmit their knoledge
Ordering eventsExempleThen, they headed southAfter the first expedition, Columbus made three moreTake turns to describe the discovery of AmericaYouColumbus made his first expedition in 1492Your partner: