Quantitative research focuses on the left brain - objective, comfortable with logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Qualitative research deals with the right brain - the hemisphere accountable for processing data as words, emotions, feelings, emotions, colour, and music.
1. QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVERESEARCHEditor: Stephen Murray
2. OVERALL FRAMEWORK
3. KEEP IN MIND THAT …• Qualitative researchgenerally deals in words,images and the subjective• Quantitative researchgenerally deals innumbers, logic and theobjective
4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH• Research used in range of activitiesfrom exploratory designs to meansof completing explanations• Qualitative research assumes thatpeople have meaningfulactions or experiencesthat can be interpretedAgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons
5. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPOPULARITY COMES FROM:*ECONOMICAL*FLEXIBLE*OPENS A DOOR TO “WHY, HOW”*RICHNESS OF DATA*BEST TO START WITH...
6. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH• Identification of a given question; opportunityor information requirements• Interest in obtaining insights formotivational /social (group) or emotional andattitudinal (individual) factors• In IR: primary data of events or personalitiessupporting explanations and argument• (Cf. In marketing: for new product launch, new servicedevelopment or repositioning current product
7. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHFOCUS GROUPSCharacteristics:• 6-12 people• Lead by a trained moderator• in-depth discussion on 1 particular topicor concept• Relaxed, informal atmosphere• 1-3 hour durationGoal:• Learn and understand what people sayand why?AgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons
8. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHFOCUS GROUPS
9. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHFOCUS GROUPSADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESSynergySpontaneitySpeedSecurityFlexibilityInexpensiveRepresentativenessMisjudgement Lack of analysisModeratorSubjectivity
10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNQualitative Research: • Examples• Case studies on effect of vocational training in Papua • Ethnographic studies on indigenous populations in Oaxaca, Mexico Qualitative Research Types:• Case studies • Developmental research • Historical research • Ethnograph studies • Case Studies:• Purpose: to do an in depth study• In brief: Background, current status and/or environmental factors that interact for each group (individual, institution or community)
11. • Characteristics of Case Studies:• It gives very detailed information about individuals / group / community• It may give a detailed explanation of a complete life cycle or part of it• Number of cases studied may be small but the number of variables studied are usually more in-depth (e.g. if compared to a survey)• Developmental Research: • Conducted to research on the development of individuals / group / institution / community • TWO TYPES: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal • Historical Research:• Used to gain information on an event, development and/or previous educational experience• Process may involve studying previous situation, checking on current situation, and to predict if the same situation will occur again • Conclusion on previous event is done based on collected facts and evidences to answer why and how the event and repercussions occurred• Useful to solve questions that involve sensitive issues • Important for systematically & objectively collecting and defining facts and evidences
12. • Procedure for Historical Research:• Define the problem • Specify source of evidence • Collect evidence / reference materials • Primary source / original (observation or witnesses of events or authentic objects – e.g. artifacts, speech text, records etc.) • Secondary source (materials or information collected from primary sources – e.g. paintings, films, news reports, documents • Critique of evidences – External critique: confirming if collected sources are genuine and reliable (authenticity of paintings, signatures, chemical analysis etc.) – Internal critique: conducted after authenticity of source of information is confirmed – involves evaluation of collected evidences– is it important? Required? • Able to explain the researched phenomenon? • Prepare the report • Ethnographic Research:• In-depth study of natural behaviours in a culture or social group • Purpose – to understand relationships between behaviour and culture – Example: In education – to understand schooling process (e.g., immigrant children) Involves widespread observations (participant & nonparticipant) • Here often starts research without hypothesis – hypothesis is developed in the process of observations, and the researcher explores and test his hypothesis
13. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIN-DEPTH INTERVIEWCharacteristics:• A well trained interviewer+interviewee• Interviewee is exposed to set of probing questions• Usually face to face• Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk moreGoal:• To collect as much as memory, attitudinal and behavioral data from the subjectAgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons
14. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWApplications:-Interviews with professionals-Interviews with witnesses-When detailed probing is needed-Discussion of sensitive, confidential issues-When strong, social norms exist-Interviews with competitors
15. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIN-DEPTH INTERVIEWADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESConcentrated issue -maximum probingFree exchange ofinformationEasier to arrangeBest for intimate,sensitive issuesFlexibilityExpensiveTime consumingExhausting forInterviewerInterviewer errorsRespondent bias orreliability
16. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUEDefinition:*• These are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an ambiguous situation • They are all indirect techniques that attempt to disguise the purpose of the research AgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons*Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualitative_marketing_research
17. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Projective TechniquesWord Association Sentence Completion TestsCartoon Tests Role PlayingThird-Person TechniquesPicture Interpretation /StoryTelling
18. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUESTypes:1. Word Association Customers are required to show response to the concept they are told within 2-3 sec.
20. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.2. Sentence CompletionCustomers are required to completesentences or stories in their own words• People who are concerned about ecology …• When I think of a city …• I drink a Coca-Cola, usually when .• Starbucks reminds me of…
22. QUALITATIVE MARKETING - PROJECTIVE TECH.• Hth• Hntfyf• hngfhnLet’s see if we canpick up somehouse wares atWalmartWALMARTWALMART
23. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.4. Role Playing• Respondents are asked to assume thebehavior of someone else• Useful for emphatic approaches for conflictresolutionSales Supervisors are asked to become SalesRepresantatives, and vice versa.
24. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.5. Third PersonWay of learning respondents feelings oropinions by asking them to answer for athird party :“your neighbour”“most people”“typical person”
25. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.6.Picture InterpretationA technique whereby respondents are shown apicture and are asked to tell a storydescribing it
26. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESElicit responses thatsubjects would beunwilling to giveUnderlyingMotivations, Beliefs,AttitudesParticipation of therespondentsSkills are required toanalyse the responsesExpensive
27. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH1. Degree of Structure2. Probing of individualrespondents3. Moderator bias4. Interpretation bias5. Uncoveringsubconsciousinformation6. Discovering innovativeinformation7. Obtaining sensitiveinformation8. Involve unusualbehavior orquestioning9. Overall usefulnessRelatively highLowRelatively mediumRelatively lowLowHighLowNoHighly usefulRelatively mediumHighRelatively highRelativelymedium Medium tohighMediumMediumTo a limitedextentRelatively lowMediumLow to highRelatively highHighLowHighYesSomewhatusefulFocusGroupsDepthInterviewsProjectiveTechniquesCriteria
28. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEYSURVEY METHOD:• STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE• GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATION• DESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION
29. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH -SURVEYTraditionalTelephoneComputer-AssistedTelephoneInterviewingMailInterviewMailPanelIn-Home ByappointmentRandom PersonalInterviewingE-mail InternetSurveyMethodsTelephone Personal Mail Electronic
30. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - EXPERIMENTATIONEXPERIMENTATION METHOD:• Scientific investigation in which• an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independentvariables and• observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to themanipulation of the independent variables.*
31. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESSpecific researchproblemClear independent anddependent variableHigh level of reliabilityMinimum personaljudgementLimited outcomes dueto structured methodUnability to control theenvironmentExpensive(largenumber of respondents)
33. COMPARISON OFQUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHcontd.CHARACTERISTICS QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVETime OfExecutionShort TimeFramesUsually long timeframesSample Size Small LargeType OfAnalysesSubjective,InterpretitiveStatistical,Descriptive,causalResearcher Skills Psychology,Sociology,CB,Social PsychologyStatistics, MR, DSS,Decision ModelsRepresentativeness Limited Good
34. SUMMARY• Qualitative methods focus on generating exploratoryinitial/progressive insights into questions and problems• Depth probing of hidden attitudes, feelings or behaviour• Focus Groups• In depth Interviews• Projective Techniques
35. SUMMARY• Quantitative Research is interested in using formalised,standard structured questioning, whereby response optionsare pre-determined• Usually to be administered to significantly large numbers ofpeople.Descriptive Causal(Surveys) (Experimentation)