Quantitative vs qualitative_research
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  • Quantitative research focuses on the left brain - objective, comfortable with logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Qualitative research deals with the right brain - the hemisphere accountable for processing data as words, emotions, feelings, emotions, colour, and music.

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  • 1. QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVERESEARCHEditor: Stephen Murray
  • 2. OVERALL FRAMEWORK
  • 3. KEEP IN MIND THAT …• Qualitative researchgenerally deals in words,images and the subjective• Quantitative researchgenerally deals innumbers, logic and theobjective
  • 4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH• Research used in range of activitiesfrom exploratory designs to meansof completing explanations• Qualitative research assumes thatpeople have meaningfulactions or experiencesthat can be interpretedAgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons
  • 5. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPOPULARITY COMES FROM:*ECONOMICAL*FLEXIBLE*OPENS A DOOR TO “WHY, HOW”*RICHNESS OF DATA*BEST TO START WITH...
  • 6. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH• Identification of a given question; opportunityor information requirements• Interest in obtaining insights formotivational /social (group) or emotional andattitudinal (individual) factors• In IR: primary data of events or personalitiessupporting explanations and argument• (Cf. In marketing: for new product launch, new servicedevelopment or repositioning current product
  • 7. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHFOCUS GROUPSCharacteristics:• 6-12 people• Lead by a trained moderator• in-depth discussion on 1 particular topicor concept• Relaxed, informal atmosphere• 1-3 hour durationGoal:• Learn and understand what people sayand why?AgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons
  • 8. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHFOCUS GROUPS
  • 9. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHFOCUS GROUPSADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESSynergySpontaneitySpeedSecurityFlexibilityInexpensiveRepresentativenessMisjudgement Lack of analysisModeratorSubjectivity
  • 10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNQualitative Research:  • Examples• Case studies on effect of vocational training in Papua • Ethnographic studies on indigenous populations in Oaxaca, Mexico   Qualitative Research Types:• Case studies • Developmental research • Historical research • Ethnograph studies • Case Studies:• Purpose: to do an in depth study• In brief: Background, current status and/or environmental factors that interact for each group (individual, institution or community) 
  • 11. • Characteristics of Case Studies:• It gives very detailed information about individuals / group / community• It may give a detailed explanation of a complete life cycle or part of it• Number of cases studied may be small but the number of variables studied are usually more in-depth (e.g. if compared to a survey)• Developmental Research:  • Conducted to research on the development of individuals / group / institution / community  • TWO TYPES: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal • Historical Research:• Used to gain information on an event, development and/or previous educational experience• Process may involve studying previous situation, checking on current situation, and to predict if the same situation will occur again • Conclusion on previous event is done based on collected facts and evidences to answer why and how the event and repercussions occurred• Useful to solve questions that involve sensitive issues • Important for systematically & objectively collecting and defining facts and evidences 
  • 12. • Procedure for Historical Research:• Define the problem • Specify source of evidence • Collect evidence / reference materials • Primary source / original (observation or witnesses of events or authentic objects – e.g. artifacts, speech text, records etc.) • Secondary source (materials or information collected from primary sources – e.g. paintings, films, news reports, documents • Critique of evidences – External critique: confirming if collected sources are genuine and reliable (authenticity of paintings, signatures, chemical analysis etc.) – Internal critique: conducted after authenticity of source of information is confirmed – involves evaluation of collected evidences– is it important? Required?  • Able to explain the researched phenomenon? • Prepare the report • Ethnographic Research:• In-depth study of natural behaviours in a culture or social group • Purpose – to understand relationships between behaviour and culture – Example: In education – to understand schooling process (e.g., immigrant children) Involves widespread observations (participant & nonparticipant) • Here often starts research without hypothesis – hypothesis is developed in the process of observations, and the researcher explores and test his hypothesis 
  • 13. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIN-DEPTH INTERVIEWCharacteristics:• A well trained interviewer+interviewee• Interviewee is exposed to set of probing questions• Usually face to face• Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk moreGoal:• To collect as much as memory, attitudinal and behavioral data from the subjectAgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons
  • 14. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWApplications:-Interviews with professionals-Interviews with witnesses-When detailed probing is needed-Discussion of sensitive, confidential issues-When strong, social norms exist-Interviews with competitors
  • 15. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIN-DEPTH INTERVIEWADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESConcentrated issue -maximum probingFree exchange ofinformationEasier to arrangeBest for intimate,sensitive issuesFlexibilityExpensiveTime consumingExhausting forInterviewerInterviewer errorsRespondent bias orreliability
  • 16. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUEDefinition:*• These are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an ambiguous situation • They are all indirect techniques that attempt to disguise the purpose of the research AgendaDefinition When touse?TypesFOCUS GROUPSIN DEPTHINTERVIEWPROJECTIVE TECH.Pros&Cons*Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualitative_marketing_research
  • 17. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES  Projective TechniquesWord Association Sentence Completion TestsCartoon Tests Role PlayingThird-Person TechniquesPicture Interpretation /StoryTelling
  • 18. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUESTypes:1. Word Association     Customers are required to show response to the concept they are told within 2-3 sec.
  • 19. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES*Source: http://www.nielsenbuzzmetrics.com/images/uploaded/NikeBAM.gif
  • 20. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.2. Sentence CompletionCustomers are required to completesentences or stories in their own words• People who are concerned about ecology …• When I think of a city …• I drink a Coca-Cola, usually when .• Starbucks reminds me of…
  • 21. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.3. Cartoon Tests
  • 22. QUALITATIVE MARKETING - PROJECTIVE TECH.• Hth• Hntfyf• hngfhnLet’s see if we canpick up somehouse wares atWalmartWALMARTWALMART
  • 23. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.4. Role Playing• Respondents are asked to assume thebehavior of someone else• Useful for emphatic approaches for conflictresolutionSales Supervisors are asked to become SalesRepresantatives, and vice versa.
  • 24. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.5. Third PersonWay of learning respondents feelings oropinions by asking them to answer for athird party :“your neighbour”“most people”“typical person”
  • 25. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.6.Picture InterpretationA technique whereby respondents are shown apicture and are asked to tell a storydescribing it
  • 26. QUALITATIVE RESEARCHPROJECTIVE TECH.ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESElicit responses thatsubjects would beunwilling to giveUnderlyingMotivations, Beliefs,AttitudesParticipation of therespondentsSkills are required toanalyse the responsesExpensive
  • 27. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH1. Degree of Structure2. Probing of individualrespondents3. Moderator bias4. Interpretation bias5. Uncoveringsubconsciousinformation6. Discovering innovativeinformation7. Obtaining sensitiveinformation8. Involve unusualbehavior orquestioning9. Overall usefulnessRelatively highLowRelatively mediumRelatively lowLowHighLowNoHighly usefulRelatively mediumHighRelatively highRelativelymedium Medium tohighMediumMediumTo a limitedextentRelatively lowMediumLow to highRelatively highHighLowHighYesSomewhatusefulFocusGroupsDepthInterviewsProjectiveTechniquesCriteria
  • 28. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEYSURVEY METHOD:• STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE• GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATION• DESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION
  • 29. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH -SURVEYTraditionalTelephoneComputer-AssistedTelephoneInterviewingMailInterviewMailPanelIn-Home ByappointmentRandom PersonalInterviewingE-mail InternetSurveyMethodsTelephone Personal Mail Electronic
  • 30. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - EXPERIMENTATIONEXPERIMENTATION METHOD:• Scientific investigation in which• an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independentvariables and• observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to themanipulation of the independent variables.*
  • 31. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESSpecific researchproblemClear independent anddependent variableHigh level of reliabilityMinimum personaljudgementLimited outcomes dueto structured methodUnability to control theenvironmentExpensive(largenumber of respondents)
  • 32. COMPARISON OFQUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHCHARACTERISTICS QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVEResearchObjectivesDiscovery of newideas,insightsand feelingsValidation offacts,estimates,relationshipsType OfResearchUsuallyexploratoryDescriptive andcausalType OfQuestionsOpen-ended,semi-structured,unstructured,probingMostly structured
  • 33. COMPARISON OFQUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHcontd.CHARACTERISTICS QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVETime OfExecutionShort TimeFramesUsually long timeframesSample Size Small LargeType OfAnalysesSubjective,InterpretitiveStatistical,Descriptive,causalResearcher Skills Psychology,Sociology,CB,Social PsychologyStatistics, MR, DSS,Decision ModelsRepresentativeness Limited Good
  • 34. SUMMARY• Qualitative methods focus on generating exploratoryinitial/progressive insights into questions and problems• Depth probing of hidden attitudes, feelings or behaviour• Focus Groups• In depth Interviews• Projective Techniques
  • 35. SUMMARY• Quantitative Research is interested in using formalised,standard structured questioning, whereby response optionsare pre-determined• Usually to be administered to significantly large numbers ofpeople.Descriptive Causal(Surveys) (Experimentation)
  • 36. OVERALL FRAMEWORKSource: http://www.informedbusinessdecisions.com/RoadMapt400c.jpg