STATE OF BRITAIN• The British Empire was fueled by mercantilism• Mercantilism was achieved through acquiring manydifferent colonies away from the mother land to ensure thecontrol of a variety of raw materials.• Mercantilism: wealth comes from exporting moregoods compared to importing more goods• During their quest for mercantilism and control ofthe vast majority of resources, the British Empire,kept running into the French Empire.• Begin fighting with France
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR• Starts in 1756 - Ends in 1763• Also known as the Seven Years War• Fought in the American colonies• War is between Britain and France• Britain sends troops to American Colonies• Britain Wins! (with help of the American colonists).• Britain is in a lot of debt after the war.• British solution to get out of debt: tax and strictlyregulating trade in the American colonies.
AMERICAN COLONIES 1763• The American colonies were a part of the BritishEmpire, but had gone through a period of salutaryneglect• Salutary neglect: Left alone to govern themselves but stillunder the control of another country• Colonists had been use to smuggling in goods fromother countries, selling their goods to othercountries, and began producing their ownproducts.• Not acting like a good colony of the British Empire
PROBLEMS START IN THE COLONY• Britain begins to enforce trade rulesand taxes on the colonists• British troops and officers can see whatthe colonists are doing• Britain does not let colonists moveinto the land won from the French inthe Seven Years War• Proclamation Line 1763
BRITAIN TAKES ACTION• Sugar Act 1764• Taxed Sugar• Quartering Act 1765• Colonists had to house British soldiers• Stamp Act 1765• Taxed everything that was made up of paper• Playing cards, legal documents, mail, news papers ect.• Stamp Act Congress 1765• Encouraged Colonists to boycott British goods• Wrote to the King George and Parliament to reconsider the Act• Said that the tax was unfair because the colonies were notrepresented in the House of Commons• Stamp Act repealed 1766
1768-1770• British Troops occupy Boston• 2 full regiments of soldiers• Boston Massacre 1770• British Troops shot on unarmed citizens of Boston• The soldiers were tried in the Colonies• Represented by John Adams• They were acquitted
COLONISTS BEGIN TO ORGANIZE• Committees of Correspondence• Set up in Massachusetts 1772• Boycott of British goods• 1773 Boston Tea Party• Colonists dressed as Indians went aboard ships carrying British Teaand dumped the tea into Boston Harbor• First Continental Congress 1774• First form of organized delegates that discussed abandoningBritain• Met in Philadelphia• 12 of the 13 colonies were represented• Made up of 55 members• Georgia did not attend
INTOLERABLE OR COERCIVE ACTS• Intolerable or Coercive Acts• American Colonists called the Acts the Intolerable Acts• The British called the Acts the Coercive Acts• Put into action in response to the Boston Tea Party
BOSTON PORT ACT• 1774• Shut down the Boston port until the British King wasrepaid for the dumped tea
MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNMENT ACT• 1774• Took away the colonies charter in order to havemore royal control• Massachusetts had been unique among thecolonies in its ability to elect members of itsexecutive council. This act took away that right andinstead gave the king sole power to appoint anddismiss the council. Additionally, many civil officesthat had previously been chosen by election werenow to be appointed by the royal governor.
QUEBEC ACT• 1774• The oath of allegiance was replaced with one thatno longer made reference to the Protestant faith. Itguaranteed free practice of the Catholic faith.• Promoted the Roman Catholic faith in preferenceto widely-held Protestant beliefs. It also limitedopportunities for colonies to expand on theirwestern frontiers, by granting most of the OhioCountry to the province of Quebec
THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ACT• 1774• Took away the American Colonists right to hold trials• the Act granted a change of venue to anotherBritish colony or Great Britain in trials of officialscharged with a crime growing out of theirenforcement of the law or suppression of riots.Witnesses for both sides were also required toattend the trial and were to be compensated fortheir expenses.