Map of Italy-----------------------------------------------------1
2. Which cities to visit------------------------------------------3
3. How to get around--------------------------------------------8
4. Local customs and manners-------------------------------9
5. What to wear-------------------------------------------------12
6. What to see and do------------------------------------------14
7. Where to stay-----------------------------------------------17
8. What to eat and drink-------------------------------------18
9. How to stay safe and healthy-----------------------------19
10. Who are the famous people--------------------------------20
3. Map of Italy
4. Italy Travel
Let’s go to Italy!
Now in Italy, lots of big changes happen. Italian
cultures are reborn. People think that this time will be
remain a great history in the future. Italy became a very
important trade center for Europe, and trade brought
immense wealth and new ideas to the Italian city-
states in 15th century. The despots and rulers of these
cities soon began to patronize the arts in a competition
for prestige among one another. Italian changed
literature began with Petrarch and his friend Boccaccio.
Boccaccio wrote the Decameron which criticizes
dishonorable Church and priests. In Florence, in the
ﬁrst half of the 15th century, there were great
innovators in all these ﬁelds. These innovator included
Masaccio in painting, Bruenelleschi in architecture and
Donatello in sculpture. The big changes began in
Florence and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
5. Which cities to visit
Now Italy is a collection of city-states, each with its own ruler. For example
the Pope in Rome, the Medici family in Florence, The Doge in Venice. They
have a lot beautiful architectures and arts. Surrounding each city will gives
different feelings to you. They are largest collection of art and architecture
in the world!
One of the strong cities in Italy is Florence. It is
the birthplace of the changes of art and
architectures. Florence is located in northern Italy.
It is a very rich city. The silk, cotton and wool
industries are important role to make people
wealthy. The merchants who dominate the industry
build enormous gilded mansions in the city. When
you arrive there you can see good quality of them.
Growth on trade from the crusades make
Florence rich. Traders trade with many distant
lands. They also go to France, the Black Sea, Asia,
and parts of Africa. They trade for peppercorns,
nutmeg, mace, and cinnamon. Some trader get rich
by lending money and making interest to
borrowers. Florence is very famous with European
banking system. Many European visit Florence for
there money. Some rich bankers lend money to
high- level people.
One of the high-level people is Medici family.
The Medici are a powerful banking and trading
family whose members are closely associated as
patrons with the cultural revival. By 1400s they had
gained control of Florence. The most famous of the
Family is Lorenzo the Magniﬁcent. He was a
powerful supporter of the arts.
Florence produce many men of distinguished
talent of art such as Leonardo da Vinci,
Michelangelo, Dante, Raffaello, and Boccaccio.
Tourist Attractions: Church of San Lorenzo is one
of the largest churches. It is the parish church of
the Medici family. This building use unique style of
architecture which was not exist before. Gates of
Paradise is Lorenzo Ghiberti’s work. He made this
gate for 21 years. This gate also shows perfectly
different style compared with other gates which
made 13th century. Michelangelo praised it and
called it ‘Gates of Paradise.’
6. Which citie
s to visit
Venice is a one of beautiful cities. It was built on piles sunk into
marshy island at the Adriatic Sea. When you go there you will feel like
ﬂoating on the water. Venice land looks like a ﬁsh. The city has
hundreds of canals, which function as road and high ways. The
population of Venice is more than 150000 people. Scenery of Venice also
great. Different 100 small islands connects with 400 bridges.
Venice is successful city because the leaders create a powerful Navy.
The navy was able to gain control of the trade routes of the
Mediterranean Sea. The Venetians keep hundreds of merchant ships,
warships and thousands of sailors. Navy prevents the Venice from
enemies. Venetians are under ruler doge. The city also has a senate and
a big council that pass laws. All the citizens are at the mercy of the
government. Venetians referred to their city as a republic, which is a
form of democracy.
Venice is one of the important cities of the Italian arts and
architectures. Architects built beautiful palaces and official buildings.
Titan is the most famous artist in Venice. Venice wealthy merchants are
the patrons for many artists.
Rialto Bridge is the most famous in Venice. Antonio da Pote and his
nephew Atonio Contino made it in recently. Rialto Bridge is
representative architecture in Venice which use polpular style of
architecture. This bridge is so splendid and magniﬁcent. Church of San
Giorgio Maggiore was built from Palladio Andrea. He was a famous
architect in Italy. In his works, you can see elegance and symmetry. This
church also on of the Italian peculiarly style of architecture which was
not exist berfore. White classical facade will catch your attention.
ies to vis
Rome is on of the powerful cities in Italy. The city of Rome is largely a
creation of the cultural movement. Only 400 years ago, Rome was abandoned
city. Only weeds and animals lived in there. But after the embarrassments of
the Babylonian Captivity, a succession of popes embarked on a rebuilding
program designed to restore the papacy’s dignity.
After 1418, the year when Pope Martin V established the Papal See in Rome
again, the city began to be born again and, at the end of the 15th century, it
returned to being the great capital it had once been. Ordered in the late 15th
century by Pope Sixtus IV, from which it takes its name, the chapel is the most
emblematic example of papal patronage. Martin V, Nicholas V, Sixtus IV, and
Julius II encouraged to art, music, classical, and archaeological studies. They
made Rome a representative city of cultural movements and revival of art.
Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli and Cosimo Rosselli are the
most famous painters in Rome.
The chapel, to be used by both the pope and the congregation, was
adorned with the brilliant paintings done by Michelangelo. The great artists
painted the frescoes of the vault, and those of the altar wall, with the
extremely famous Last Judgment.
Tourist Attractions: Fontana di Trevi is the famous fountain in Rome. This
fountain was built by popes. Recently the Papal court repaired the water
supply facilities and then developed the new water service. They
commemorate it by building new fountains on the street. Trevi Fountain is the
best work of them.
8. How to get a
Most of people traveling by land is limited to the local fair of farmer’s Market.
Road are little more than rocky pathways, and can be dangerous, with bandits
waiting to pounce on unsuspecting travelers. Common vehicles for traveling
on land are horses, pack mules, and wagons. Coaches are for rich people. The
most common way to get around on land was on foot. Most of traveler choose
this way to travel Italy. And it was usually the most efficient. Carts and wagons
are slow and cumbersome. Some narrow roads they can’t go pass through.
Traveling by horseback was the fastest way. However it is expensive for
travelers. Travelers who is traveling great distance, they will need new horse
every 12 miles. Travelers need over night accommodations for sleep and rest.
They are extremely expensive so It is good way to share a single bed with
other strangers. Try to keep up your hygiene.
There are many people who like to use sea travel such as merchants,
missionaries, soldiers, students and pilgrims. Sea travel is most comfortable
way for them. Overseas travel become very popular by increasing trade and
exploration in Italy. Though you can travel to distant lands by ship, it has
some serious dangers. Storms can easily sink a ship. Pirates are also always a
problem for travels. They steal people’s expensive goods, money, and even
ship. In Italy, water travel is also popular for short distances. Rivers, canals and
lakes take much shorter time than by travel land. However, travel can be
affected by barge. If a barge is trying to travel against the current, it takes
three times as long then going downstream. River travel is not always reliable
too. In summer or dry times, water levels can drop very low for barges or
boats. Take care yourself when you travel on water!
Local customs and mann
There are various types of government in Italy. For example, Naples is a monarchy,
Venice is a republic, and many other areas are papal states, which are ruled by the
Pope. However, only noble families and rich people can be politicians. Italian
rediscover slavery again. Slaves use again in Italy. They are mainly used in a house
to help house-working. For example cleaners, maids and cooks. Most slaves sell in
Italy are Muslims form Spain, North Africa, Crete, the Balkans, and the Ottoman
Empire. There are ﬁve classes in Italy. The nobles own much of the land and live on
large estates outside the city walls. The merchants are the newly rich, who gain
wealth in industries like wool processing, boat making and banking. The merchants
protect their wealth by controlling the government and marrying into noble
families. They become patrons of great artists in order to gain public favor. Below
them are the rich businessmen and bankers. The lowest level are the workers, who
did no have job protection and are very dependent on their employers. Urban
workers are better off than the peasants who lived in rural areas. Finally, the slaves
are at the bottom.
Italy is not the uniﬁed country, it is divided into many small independent states.
The most prominent city-states included Florence, Venice, Naples, and Rome.
Naples in the south is ruled by a series of kings. Popes of the Roman Catholic
Church ruled the middle section. To the North different families controlled the
largest and wealthiest city-states of Florence, Milan, and Venice. Leaders of the
prominent ruling families are often important leaders in the Catholic Church,
which is actively involved in running the business of public life. There are about
20 city-states in Italy, each has different way to govern and even issuing its
own currency. Converting the money use in trading wool and other goods from
the currency of the buyers to coinage of the sellers is a major task. Bankers
accumulate great fortunes by making these exchanges, and charging fees for
their services. Each state was a political entity that competed politically and
militarily with its neighbors. Italian city-states like Milan, Venice, and Rome
have a great deal of inﬂuence on policies and public life.
10. Local customs and manners
In the past, the Catholic Church had been an important religion for
Italian. The church had a difficult time adjusting to people’s new ideas.
Italian people begin to free themselves from the Catholic Church. Some
people start the Protestant Church. Even though the churches inﬂuence the
power of politics.
Humanism become popular now in Italy. It means a literary and cultural
movement focusing on the individual and the natural world would result in
persons questioning their personal destinies and roles on the world. The
humanist movement stated in Italy, where the late medieval Italian writers
Dante, Giovanni Boccaccio, and Francesco Petrarch contribute greatly to
the discovery and preservation of Classical works.
Humanists believe that education is very important to people. Education
become more popular. In 13th century, the church controlled people’s
education. They tried to prevent people’s learning by teaching them with
limit of education. Humanists propose a more rounded education that
placed the emphasis not only on intellectual learning, but also on physical
and moral development.
There are some manners which are expected on table. You need follow
these rules when you eating with Italian people. Don’t forget them!
* No spitting across the table.
* No dipping meat directly into the salt dish.
* No picking ones teeth with a ﬁnger or knife.
Loc al custom
an d manner
In Italy, there are different lives of people. People’s life divided
with sexual, social classes, and wealth. High social classes people
live with showing off their wealth and power. Women and men
have opposite life patterns. The wealth decide quality of one’s life.
Let’s know about it more speciﬁc!
Day to Day life
In Italy women usually stay at home and care for the children and
the home. Women remain active only in carding and spinning wool.
Women who could not marry or lacked the dowry required to become
nuns had to ﬁnd work. Before the 15th century women could join craft
guilds, but now that point craft guilds begin to exclude women.
Women can be wool merchants, cutlers, leatherworkers, butchers,
ironmongers, glovers, bookbinders, or goldsmiths.
The men in the family worked out of the house. Older children, both
boys and girls, often work alongside their fathers, to help contribute to
the family funds. Italian always have music. They play instruments and
sing. Folk songs help to make work lighter and religious songs
Death is very common in Italy. People always see corpses everyday.
Before the great changes about religion, people think death is the
punishment for sins. However now the humanism is developed, people
consider about death more complicated with humanism ideas. Funerals
are the devout religious ceremony in Italy.
12. what to wear
C lot hes
Wearing Italian style clothes is one of the good way to experience Italy
culture. When you wear Italian style clothes you can feel like you become
real Italian. If you want to know about Italian popular fashion, this page
will give good informaion to you!
Italian fashion is all about elegance and indulgence. Science is on the rise
and new ideas are embraced. These new ideas and concepts are reﬂected in
the fashion of the day.
The wealthy clad themselves in extremely rich materials in Italy. These
fabrics include silk, velvet, fur, leather, wool and hemp. However, the most
popular material is deﬁnitely brocade, a rich silk fabric that is shuttle woven
with intricate designs. The poor stuck to whatever fabric was available, usually
a rough hemp or wool.
Lavish and complicated styles are popular in Italy. Trimming, and
decoration styles are also utilized. Lace is popular, as are decorative jewels and
weavings. Must have item is to slash or panel sleeves and pants. To slash or
panel an outﬁt, the fabric would be cut and a contrasting fabric would be
pulled through or sewn in. Both men and women are very fond of using this
Women of upper social classes wear mostly long, full skirts with ﬁtted
bodices. These skirts are usually ﬂoor length and always worn with petticoats.
Skirts can be whole, covering the entire area, or partly open, exposing an
underskirt beneath. Bodices are almost ﬁtted. Necklines may be high and ruffle
or somewhat low and trim. Sleeves can be long, layered, puffed or slashed,
depending on the exact outﬁt. Poor women wear very ragged clothes or the
outdated cast-off garments from a noble’s wardrobe. The skirts can be
anywhere from mid calf to ﬂoor length and are usually patched with
mismatched petticoats. Shirts tend to be plain with long or puffed sleeves.
Rich men are wearing long robe-like garments. Instead of traditional pants,
men wear knitted tights under a knee-length tunic. They also sometimes wear
short, puffy pants known as trunkhose, over their knitted hose. The bottom
part of men’s fashion is rather plain, it is the upper area that carried all the
glamour. The upper parts of the tunics are often edged, lined embroidered or
otherwise decorated in a lavish style. Poor men wear basic trousers and
overshirt during the 14th and 15th century. Fabric is hard to come by for a poor
man. The pants are usually slightly loose and tied around the waist or calves.
Shirts are made as roughly as the pants, and tended do be little more than a
13. what to wear
Women do not care themselves with things
like a few extra pounds of weight. The ideal
of beauty in Italy is more voluptuous than
any other time. Paintings in Italy often focus
on women who is little fat. However, now,
their ﬁgures and forms are considered the
height of sexiness.
Italian hairstyles are usually as much about the hair covering as they are about
Women’s hairstyles were usually covered. It’s important to remember that almost
all women had long hair during the 14th and 15th century. There are no different
cuts and looks, just different ways to style long hair.
One popular way to style long hair is braiding. The hair could be worn down in a
simple braid or up in elaborate twisted braids around the head, depending on the
woman’s social status.
Italian hair taping is a popular and beautiful way to twist hair. Start by splitting
hair down the middle. Take a clump of hair from the left temple and pull it back,
twisting along the way. Slowly twist hair together, taking on more strands, until it
reaches the ends. Repeat the process with the other side of head. Cross the two
twist lengths and wrap them around head. Secure the ends of the twists with a pin
or barrette. Decorate the style with a looped ribbon tied in a bow around the twists
at the base of the neck.
The most classic hairstyle for younger women is a simple look with a few
decorations. Leave hair down and ﬂowing. Pull back a small clump of hair from each
temple and braid it, using a small barrette to clasp the strands together at the back
of head. Place a gem or bead decorated circlet on head. A circlet is basically a
necklace that goes around forehead.
14. what to s
ee and do
Now the Italy will be the best productive country in the history of art with
large numbers of outstanding masters to be found in many centers and in
all the major ﬁelds painting, sculpture, and architecture. You will be fall in
love with beautiful Italian art and architecture!
Botticelli- The Birth of Venus Michelangelo- Genesis
Artists came to be supported not only by churchmen but also by private
collectors. The Italian wealthy patrons create a new demand for pictures of
secular subjects. They want art that show joy in human beauty and life’s
pleasures. New style of the Italian art is more lifelike than in the art of the
12th and 13th century. Italian artists study perspective, or the differences in
the way things look when they are close to something or far away. The artists
paint in a way that showed these differences. As a result, their paintings
seem to have depth.
In Italy, art and science are connected very closely. Both of scientist and
artist try to get mastery of the physical world and the art of painting proﬁt by
two scientiﬁc ﬁelds that called anatomy and mathematical perspective.
Anatomy make possible a more accurate representaion of the human body.
Perspective in painting is the rendering on a two dimensional surface of the
illusion of three dimensions.
Artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Bellini and
Albrecht Durer live and work in Italy. Michelangelo and Raphael count as
Italian artists as well. Donatello emerge as one of the most famous sculptors
of the period.
Some of the greatest works of art in human history are created in Italy.
Among them are the murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel,
Michelangelo's lifelike sculpture of David, the Mona Lisa, da Vinci's "Last
Supper" and Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus".
what to see and d
Leonardo da Vinci is one of the famous artists in Italy. He become famous with
his best artwork, Mona lisa. He was born April 15, 1452 in the Tuscan hill town
of Vinci. He is not only artist, he study anatomy, aeronautics, and several other
ﬁelds. Leonardo’s studio is the most popular place to visit for tourists. His
artworks is display in there. When you go there, you can feel his effort and
passion about art. There are also his notebooks comprising some 13000 pages
of notes and drawings, which fuse art and natural philosophy. These notes are
made and maintained daily thought Leonardo’s life and travels. Leonardo’s
sudio is located in his hometown, Tuscan. Let’s go to Leonardo’s Studio.
A THOUSAND WORDS ARE NOT WORTH ONE SEEING!
what to see
Special style architecture began in Florence,
Italy. Italy had never used gothic architecture,
so when gothic became less popular, Italy had
something different for the people to look to.
The style spread to the area around Florence,
encompassing Rome and Milan.
A general feature of Italian architecture is
the dome. Almost all Italian cathedrals have
domes in Italy. Many domes have paintings or
decorations on the ceilings. Some good
examples of great Italian architecture with
domes are the Duomo of Florence, and St.
Peter's cathedral in Rome.
In Italy, architects train as humanists help
raise the status of their profession from
skilled laborer to artist. They hope to create
structures that will appeal to both emotion
and reason. Three key ﬁgures in Italy
important architecture are Filippo Brunelleschi,
Leon Battista Alberti, and Andrea Palladio.
#Church of San Lorenzo Florence, principal Italian architect Brunelleschi. This is
the ﬁrst church designed by Brunelleschi, commissioned by the powerful,
philanthropic Medici family. Inside the church are many of the best examples of
religious Italian art, by Bronzino, Donatello, and Lippi. The Medici family
commissioned Brunelleschi to update it to the new style of Italian architecture. He
did design it, but died before work was completed.
# Laurentian Library, principal architect Michelangelo. The Laurentian Library is in
the cloister of San Lorenzo. Michelangelo designed this, with later oversight from
fellow special style of architects Vasari and Ammannati. The Laurentian Library is
considered one of the best works to represent peculiarly style of Italian
Brunelleschi- Church of San Lorenzo Michelangelo-
17. where to stay
Travelers need over night accommodations for sleep and rest. They are
extremely expensive so If you don’t have enough money for it, you can spend at
least one night in a stranger’s house. Most of Italian people welcome quests who
has some interesting news for them. Normal houses in Italy are crowded, noisy,
and dirty. Family lives together in a huge single room. Don’t expect that you are
going to get your own bed.
If you stay with wealthy someone wooden beams will hold up the ceilings.
Expensive carpets and tiles cover the ﬂoor. A rich merchant’s house may be two
or even three stories high. On the ﬁrst ﬂoor, a large kitchen servers as a dining
room. There is a big ﬁre place for cooking, light, and heat.
Inns are located the main roadways across the countryside. If you don’t want
to stay in local areas, the guards at the gate may welcome you a pass to an inn.
The innkeeper will sigh the pass for you. In some areas, inn workers may meet
you on the road and help to carry your bags to their inn. A good tip for ﬁnding
inn is to look for a colorful sign. Many inns have names such as ‘The Lion’, or
‘The Red Cap’. A really small inn have just a leafy branch of piece of grapevine
hung over do.
It’s good way that share the expensive room with other travelers. You can
save your money. However you have t careful about keep your sanitation in little
18. wha t to eat
Food and Drinks
In Italy, many food are discovered, developed of introduced. Many new
foodstuffs came to Europe such as corn, tomatoes, peppers, sweet potatoes,
chocolate, allspice, yams, pineapple, peanuts, vanilla, green beans, and turkey.
However it took considerable time to become generally accepted and known. At
ﬁrst, corn was used as an ornamental, but it rapidly become a food of the poor,
who are always eager to try new foods. Corn become so plentiful that it is
ground into meal and eventually become synonymous with polenta. Cooks of
the Italy work with many foodstuff and herbs and create fantastic meals.
Root vegetables, such as carrots, caraway and parsnips are always popular
in Italy. They are easy to grow and store. Asparagus is the vegetable for special
day. Salad greens, such as endive, chicory, lettuce and watercress are also very
popular in Italian foods. Italian people also like fruit. They usually eat fruit after
The Italian people enjoy to drink, and as water is often unclean, it is a
necessity. The poor drink ale, mead or cider and the rich are able to drink
many different types of wines. Beer is not only one of the oldest fermenting
beverages used by man, but it is also the one which is most in vogue in Italy.
This is the Recipe of Zanzarella. It is one of the popular soup in Italy. It is
pretty easy Recipe for you. It will be good activity because you can learn
Italian food with making food. I hope this soup tastes just right to you.
Let’s start to make it!
Take seven eggs, half a pound of grated cheese, and ground bread all
blended together. Put this into the pot where the saffron broth is made,
when it begins to boil. When you have stirred it two or three times with a
spoon, compose your dishes, for it is quickly done.
Saffron broth (see above: one recipe)
3 cups ground mozzarella cheese
3 slices ground bread
19. how to stay
sa fe and healt
Diseases and dangers
The Black Death is one of the worst natural disasters. It took place in
1347. A great plague swept over Europe, ravaged cities causing widespread
hysteria and death. The primary culprits in transmitting this disease were
oriental rat ﬂeas carried on the back of black rats. The plague had a
devastation effect on every aspect of life. One third of the population of
Europe died. It has affected the people in now. The Bubonic plague is one of
the most terrible diseases ever. The plague is one that killed millions. People
tried to ﬁnd treatments to heal the infected but nothing would work.
People in the Italy are more interested in medicine and develop the
medicine technology than 13th century. Physicians and scholars begin to
scientiﬁcally study medicine. Arabic pharmaceutical practices are studied and
improved, and medicines like laudanum. They are developed to stop or
reduce pain. Some doctors begin to investigate the spread of infectious
Italian people also try to prevent their diseases by listening and playing
music. They choose music therapy to protect their body. When infectious
diseases happen, Italian people use music which raise their consciousness.
They believe it prevent diseases.
20. Who’s who in renaisafe Europe
There are many people contribute to big changes of Europe. Famous people
in cultural movements and revival of art, both men and women, achieve
prominence in the ﬁelds of arts, literature, science, exploration and
philosophy. There are numerous people who were important role of culture
revival in Europe. I will introduce 4 important people to you.
leonardo da vinci
He was born April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy. He was
one of the most important artists in Italy. However
he was also proﬁcient in engineering mathematics,
architecture, geology, botany, physiology, anatomy,
sculpture, music and poetry. He was always
Leonardo got his start as an artist around 1469,
when his father apprenticed him to the fabled
workshop of Verocchio. Verocchio's specialty was
perspective, which artists had only recently begun
to get the hang of, and Leonardo quickly mastered
its challenges. In fact, Leonardo quickly surpassed
Verocchio, and by the time he was in his early
twenties he was downright famous.
Leonardo sought a universal language in painting. With perspective and other
realistic elements, Leonardo tried to create faithful renditions of life. In a culture
previously dominated by highly ﬁgurative and downright strange religious
paintings, Leonardo's desire to paint things realistically was bold and fresh.
No slouch when it came to the techniques of the day, Leonardo went beyond
his teaching by making a scientiﬁc study of light and shadow in nature. It dawned
on him that objects were not comprised of outlines, but were actually three-
dimensional bodies deﬁned by light and shadow. Known as chiaroscuro, this
technique gave his paintings the soft, lifelike quality that made older paintings
look cartoony and ﬂat.
Ever the perfectionist, Leonardo turned to science in the quest to improve his
artwork. His study of nature and anatomy emerged in his stunningly realistic
paintings, and his dissections of the human body paved the way for remarkably
accurate ﬁgures. He was the ﬁrst artist to study the physical proportions of men,
women and children and to use these studies to determine the "ideal" human
All in all, Leonardo believed that the artist must know not just the rules of
perspective, but all the laws of nature. The eye, he believed, was the perfect
instrument for learning these laws, and the artist the perfect person to illustrate
W ho’s who in renaisafe Euro
Brunelleschi was the father of Renaissacne architecture and the most
prominent architect in Italy, during his lifetime.
Filippo Brunelleschi, the son of a lawyer, was born in Florence, Italy in 1377.
He had passion for mathematics and architecture. He began repairing town
houses and buildings. Filippo continued with his studies of architecture in Rome.
Working with clocks, wheels, gears and weights, Brunelleschi improved his
exceptional skills that would help him construct some of the greatest pieces of
architecture in 14th and 15th century.
Filippo Brunelleschi died on April 16, 1446, at the age of sixty-nine, after
many years of contributing to Italian culture. He was laid to rest by the citizens
of Florence, under the ﬂoor of the Cathedral of Florence.
Filippo formulated techniques for lifting construction materials into position
and creating a self-supporting upper shell of domes. The Cathedral of Florence
was Brunelleschi's most famous work because of its dome or cupola. It was
completed without supporting scaffolding, columns, arches or pilasters. The
actual cathedral was started by Arnolﬁo di Cambio and built over 150 years. The
dome was ﬁnished in 1436 and was 91 m high. Its point was sixteen meters
high and thirty meters in diameter.
Brunelleschi brought new scaffolding, arches and hoists, and lighter masonry
into European architecture. Brunelleschi made a huge impact on architecture in
the Italy. His work was a model for much that followed. This outstanding and
unique character developed the concept of linear perspective, showing depth on
a ﬂat surface. He also inﬂuenced some of the great minds, such as Michelangelo
and Donato Bramante.
* The church of San Lorenzo
* The church of San Spirito
* The Pazzi Chapel
* Santa Maria degli Angeli
* The Pitti Palace
* The Palazzo Quaratesi
* Loggia at San Pero a Grada
* The Cathedral of Florence
W ho’s who
renais afe Europe
Giovanni Boccaccio was Italian writer,
scholar, and humanist. He is one of the
founders of the revival of literature in Europe.
Boccaccio was most probably born in
Tuscany, the illegitimate son of a merchant of
Certaldo. He launched Boccaccio on a
commercial career, during which he spent
some time at Paris. As a young man, Boccaccio
began to write stories in verse and prose. Up
to 1350 Boccaccio lived at Florence and at
Naples, producing prose tales, pastorals, and
poems. After 1350 Boccaccio became a
diplomat entrusted with important public
affairs, and a scholar devoted to the new
In 1358 he completed his great work, the
Decameron, begun some ten years before.
This collection of 100 short stories includes
tragedy and humor from Greek and Latin
Classic, Italian life, and French folk stories. It
is based in a remote villa, where a group of
people have settled to avoid the plague. He
criticize degradation of Catholic Church. The
people had enthusiasm for Decameron.
The inﬂuence of the Decameron on
European literature has been lasting, not
merely in Italy, but in France and England.
Chaucer and Shakespeare both borrowed from
it. The Decameron has also been the subject
of poems by Keats, Tennyson, Longfellow,
Swinburne and George Eliot.
During his last years Boccaccio lived
principally in retirement at Certaldo, and
would have entered into holy orders, moved
by repentance for the follies of his youth, had
he not been dissuaded by Petrarch. Boccaccio
23. Who’s who in renaisafe Europe
In 1500 the most important books used in the training of doctors were
those written by Claudius Galen. Galen's ideas had been dominant for
hundreds of years, but were only proved wrong for the ﬁrst time by Andreas
Vesalius was born in Brussels and completed his medical training in Paris.
He went on to become Professor of Anatomy at Padua University in Italy.
During the 15th and 16th century, Padua was a famous centre for medical
training. Vesalius believed that the dissection of human bodies was necessary
if doctors were to ﬁnd out how bodies worked. However, the dissection of
human bodies was not allowed by the Church. Vesalius therefore had to resort
to taking bones from graves and even stealing a body from the gallows so that
he could explore the anatomy of the human body.
Vesalius's work brought about an important change in medical thinking. He
was able to prove that some of Galen's theories were wrong. Galen, who was
only able to dissect animals, assumed that humans had the same anatomy.
Vesalius by performing dissections on humans revealed anatomical structures
Vesalius helped establish surgery as a separate medical profession. At the
time, though he was criticised, as many people refused to believe that Galen's
work could be wrong. The popularity of Vesalius's book, however, meant that
his views gradually gained acceptance and greater emphasis began to be
placed upon the study of anatomy in medical training.
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Publisher: Chloe Pack
Publication wife: BISS international school
Issued date:01. 09. 1560