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  • 1. HELLO ITALY Ita ly Seung Chae Pack 01. 09. 1560
  • 2. CONTENTS Map of Italy-----------------------------------------------------1 1. Instruction----------------------------------------------------2 2. Which cities to visit------------------------------------------3 3. How to get around--------------------------------------------8 4. Local customs and manners-------------------------------9 5. What to wear-------------------------------------------------12 6. What to see and do------------------------------------------14 7. Where to stay-----------------------------------------------17 8. What to eat and drink-------------------------------------18 9. How to stay safe and healthy-----------------------------19 10. Who are the famous people--------------------------------20 Bibliography--------------------------------------------------24 1
  • 3. Map of Italy 2
  • 4. Italy Travel Guide Let’s go to Italy! Now in Italy, lots of big changes happen. Italian cultures are reborn. People think that this time will be remain a great history in the future. Italy became a very important trade center for Europe, and trade brought immense wealth and new ideas to the Italian city- states in 15th century. The despots and rulers of these cities soon began to patronize the arts in a competition for prestige among one another. Italian changed literature began with Petrarch and his friend Boccaccio. Boccaccio wrote the Decameron which criticizes dishonorable Church and priests. In Florence, in the first half of the 15th century, there were great innovators in all these fields. These innovator included Masaccio in painting, Bruenelleschi in architecture and Donatello in sculpture. The big changes began in Florence and later spreading to the rest of Europe. 3
  • 5. Which cities to visit Now Italy is a collection of city-states, each with its own ruler. For example the Pope in Rome, the Medici family in Florence, The Doge in Venice. They have a lot beautiful architectures and arts. Surrounding each city will gives different feelings to you. They are largest collection of art and architecture in the world! Florence One of the strong cities in Italy is Florence. It is the birthplace of the changes of art and architectures. Florence is located in northern Italy. It is a very rich city. The silk, cotton and wool industries are important role to make people wealthy. The merchants who dominate the industry build enormous gilded mansions in the city. When you arrive there you can see good quality of them. Growth on trade from the crusades make Florence rich. Traders trade with many distant lands. They also go to France, the Black Sea, Asia, and parts of Africa. They trade for peppercorns, nutmeg, mace, and cinnamon. Some trader get rich by lending money and making interest to borrowers. Florence is very famous with European banking system. Many European visit Florence for there money. Some rich bankers lend money to high- level people. One of the high-level people is Medici family. The Medici are a powerful banking and trading family whose members are closely associated as patrons with the cultural revival. By 1400s they had gained control of Florence. The most famous of the Family is Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was a powerful supporter of the arts. Florence produce many men of distinguished talent of art such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Dante, Raffaello, and Boccaccio. Tourist Attractions: Church of San Lorenzo is one of the largest churches. It is the parish church of the Medici family. This building use unique style of architecture which was not exist before. Gates of Paradise is Lorenzo Ghiberti’s work. He made this gate for 21 years. This gate also shows perfectly different style compared with other gates which made 13th century. Michelangelo praised it and called it ‘Gates of Paradise.’ 4
  • 6. Which citie s to visit Venice Venice is a one of beautiful cities. It was built on piles sunk into marshy island at the Adriatic Sea. When you go there you will feel like floating on the water. Venice land looks like a fish. The city has hundreds of canals, which function as road and high ways. The population of Venice is more than 150000 people. Scenery of Venice also great. Different 100 small islands connects with 400 bridges. Venice is successful city because the leaders create a powerful Navy. The navy was able to gain control of the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea. The Venetians keep hundreds of merchant ships, warships and thousands of sailors. Navy prevents the Venice from enemies. Venetians are under ruler doge. The city also has a senate and a big council that pass laws. All the citizens are at the mercy of the government. Venetians referred to their city as a republic, which is a form of democracy. Venice is one of the important cities of the Italian arts and architectures. Architects built beautiful palaces and official buildings. Titan is the most famous artist in Venice. Venice wealthy merchants are the patrons for many artists. Tourist Attractions: Rialto Bridge is the most famous in Venice. Antonio da Pote and his nephew Atonio Contino made it in recently. Rialto Bridge is representative architecture in Venice which use polpular style of architecture. This bridge is so splendid and magnificent. Church of San Giorgio Maggiore was built from Palladio Andrea. He was a famous architect in Italy. In his works, you can see elegance and symmetry. This church also on of the Italian peculiarly style of architecture which was not exist berfore. White classical facade will catch your attention. 5
  • 7. it ies to vis Which cit Rome Rome is on of the powerful cities in Italy. The city of Rome is largely a creation of the cultural movement. Only 400 years ago, Rome was abandoned city. Only weeds and animals lived in there. But after the embarrassments of the Babylonian Captivity, a succession of popes embarked on a rebuilding program designed to restore the papacy’s dignity. After 1418, the year when Pope Martin V established the Papal See in Rome again, the city began to be born again and, at the end of the 15th century, it returned to being the great capital it had once been. Ordered in the late 15th century by Pope Sixtus IV, from which it takes its name, the chapel is the most emblematic example of papal patronage. Martin V, Nicholas V, Sixtus IV, and Julius II encouraged to art, music, classical, and archaeological studies. They made Rome a representative city of cultural movements and revival of art. Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli and Cosimo Rosselli are the most famous painters in Rome. The chapel, to be used by both the pope and the congregation, was adorned with the brilliant paintings done by Michelangelo. The great artists painted the frescoes of the vault, and those of the altar wall, with the extremely famous Last Judgment. Tourist Attractions: Fontana di Trevi is the famous fountain in Rome. This fountain was built by popes. Recently the Papal court repaired the water supply facilities and then developed the new water service. They commemorate it by building new fountains on the street. Trevi Fountain is the best work of them. 6
  • 8. How to get a round Land Most of people traveling by land is limited to the local fair of farmer’s Market. Road are little more than rocky pathways, and can be dangerous, with bandits waiting to pounce on unsuspecting travelers. Common vehicles for traveling on land are horses, pack mules, and wagons. Coaches are for rich people. The most common way to get around on land was on foot. Most of traveler choose this way to travel Italy. And it was usually the most efficient. Carts and wagons are slow and cumbersome. Some narrow roads they can’t go pass through. Traveling by horseback was the fastest way. However it is expensive for travelers. Travelers who is traveling great distance, they will need new horse every 12 miles. Travelers need over night accommodations for sleep and rest. They are extremely expensive so It is good way to share a single bed with other strangers. Try to keep up your hygiene. Water There are many people who like to use sea travel such as merchants, missionaries, soldiers, students and pilgrims. Sea travel is most comfortable way for them. Overseas travel become very popular by increasing trade and exploration in Italy. Though you can travel to distant lands by ship, it has some serious dangers. Storms can easily sink a ship. Pirates are also always a problem for travels. They steal people’s expensive goods, money, and even ship. In Italy, water travel is also popular for short distances. Rivers, canals and lakes take much shorter time than by travel land. However, travel can be affected by barge. If a barge is trying to travel against the current, it takes three times as long then going downstream. River travel is not always reliable too. In summer or dry times, water levels can drop very low for barges or boats. Take care yourself when you travel on water! 7
  • 9. ers Local customs and mann Society There are various types of government in Italy. For example, Naples is a monarchy, Venice is a republic, and many other areas are papal states, which are ruled by the Pope. However, only noble families and rich people can be politicians. Italian rediscover slavery again. Slaves use again in Italy. They are mainly used in a house to help house-working. For example cleaners, maids and cooks. Most slaves sell in Italy are Muslims form Spain, North Africa, Crete, the Balkans, and the Ottoman Empire. There are five classes in Italy. The nobles own much of the land and live on large estates outside the city walls. The merchants are the newly rich, who gain wealth in industries like wool processing, boat making and banking. The merchants protect their wealth by controlling the government and marrying into noble families. They become patrons of great artists in order to gain public favor. Below them are the rich businessmen and bankers. The lowest level are the workers, who did no have job protection and are very dependent on their employers. Urban workers are better off than the peasants who lived in rural areas. Finally, the slaves are at the bottom. Politics Italy is not the unified country, it is divided into many small independent states. The most prominent city-states included Florence, Venice, Naples, and Rome. Naples in the south is ruled by a series of kings. Popes of the Roman Catholic Church ruled the middle section. To the North different families controlled the largest and wealthiest city-states of Florence, Milan, and Venice. Leaders of the prominent ruling families are often important leaders in the Catholic Church, which is actively involved in running the business of public life. There are about 20 city-states in Italy, each has different way to govern and even issuing its own currency. Converting the money use in trading wool and other goods from the currency of the buyers to coinage of the sellers is a major task. Bankers accumulate great fortunes by making these exchanges, and charging fees for their services. Each state was a political entity that competed politically and militarily with its neighbors. Italian city-states like Milan, Venice, and Rome have a great deal of influence on policies and public life. 8
  • 10. Local customs and manners beliefs In the past, the Catholic Church had been an important religion for Italian. The church had a difficult time adjusting to people’s new ideas. Italian people begin to free themselves from the Catholic Church. Some people start the Protestant Church. Even though the churches influence the power of politics. Humanism become popular now in Italy. It means a literary and cultural movement focusing on the individual and the natural world would result in persons questioning their personal destinies and roles on the world. The humanist movement stated in Italy, where the late medieval Italian writers Dante, Giovanni Boccaccio, and Francesco Petrarch contribute greatly to the discovery and preservation of Classical works. Humanists believe that education is very important to people. Education become more popular. In 13th century, the church controlled people’s education. They tried to prevent people’s learning by teaching them with limit of education. Humanists propose a more rounded education that placed the emphasis not only on intellectual learning, but also on physical and moral development. Local manners There are some manners which are expected on table. You need follow these rules when you eating with Italian people. Don’t forget them! * No spitting across the table. * No dipping meat directly into the salt dish. * No picking ones teeth with a finger or knife. 9
  • 11. s Loc al custom s an d manner In Italy, there are different lives of people. People’s life divided with sexual, social classes, and wealth. High social classes people live with showing off their wealth and power. Women and men have opposite life patterns. The wealth decide quality of one’s life. Let’s know about it more specific! Day to Day life In Italy women usually stay at home and care for the children and the home. Women remain active only in carding and spinning wool. Women who could not marry or lacked the dowry required to become nuns had to find work. Before the 15th century women could join craft guilds, but now that point craft guilds begin to exclude women. Women can be wool merchants, cutlers, leatherworkers, butchers, ironmongers, glovers, bookbinders, or goldsmiths. The men in the family worked out of the house. Older children, both boys and girls, often work alongside their fathers, to help contribute to the family funds. Italian always have music. They play instruments and sing. Folk songs help to make work lighter and religious songs reinforced beliefs. Deaths Death is very common in Italy. People always see corpses everyday. Before the great changes about religion, people think death is the punishment for sins. However now the humanism is developed, people consider about death more complicated with humanism ideas. Funerals are the devout religious ceremony in Italy. 10
  • 12. what to wear C lot hes Wearing Italian style clothes is one of the good way to experience Italy culture. When you wear Italian style clothes you can feel like you become real Italian. If you want to know about Italian popular fashion, this page will give good informaion to you! Clothes Italian fashion is all about elegance and indulgence. Science is on the rise and new ideas are embraced. These new ideas and concepts are reflected in the fashion of the day. The wealthy clad themselves in extremely rich materials in Italy. These fabrics include silk, velvet, fur, leather, wool and hemp. However, the most popular material is definitely brocade, a rich silk fabric that is shuttle woven with intricate designs. The poor stuck to whatever fabric was available, usually a rough hemp or wool. Lavish and complicated styles are popular in Italy. Trimming, and decoration styles are also utilized. Lace is popular, as are decorative jewels and weavings. Must have item is to slash or panel sleeves and pants. To slash or panel an outfit, the fabric would be cut and a contrasting fabric would be pulled through or sewn in. Both men and women are very fond of using this style. Women of upper social classes wear mostly long, full skirts with fitted bodices. These skirts are usually floor length and always worn with petticoats. Skirts can be whole, covering the entire area, or partly open, exposing an underskirt beneath. Bodices are almost fitted. Necklines may be high and ruffle or somewhat low and trim. Sleeves can be long, layered, puffed or slashed, depending on the exact outfit. Poor women wear very ragged clothes or the outdated cast-off garments from a noble’s wardrobe. The skirts can be anywhere from mid calf to floor length and are usually patched with mismatched petticoats. Shirts tend to be plain with long or puffed sleeves. Rich men are wearing long robe-like garments. Instead of traditional pants, men wear knitted tights under a knee-length tunic. They also sometimes wear short, puffy pants known as trunkhose, over their knitted hose. The bottom part of men’s fashion is rather plain, it is the upper area that carried all the glamour. The upper parts of the tunics are often edged, lined embroidered or otherwise decorated in a lavish style. Poor men wear basic trousers and overshirt during the 14th and 15th century. Fabric is hard to come by for a poor man. The pants are usually slightly loose and tied around the waist or calves. Shirts are made as roughly as the pants, and tended do be little more than a short tunic.  11
  • 13. what to wear Beauty Women do not care themselves with things like a few extra pounds of weight. The ideal of beauty in Italy is more voluptuous than any other time. Paintings in Italy often focus on women who is little fat. However, now, their figures and forms are considered the height of sexiness. Hair Italian hairstyles are usually as much about the hair covering as they are about the hair. Women’s hairstyles were usually covered. It’s important to remember that almost all women had long hair during the 14th and 15th century. There are no different cuts and looks, just different ways to style long hair. One popular way to style long hair is braiding. The hair could be worn down in a simple braid or up in elaborate twisted braids around the head, depending on the woman’s social status. Italian hair taping is a popular and beautiful way to twist hair. Start by splitting hair down the middle. Take a clump of hair from the left temple and pull it back, twisting along the way. Slowly twist hair together, taking on more strands, until it reaches the ends. Repeat the process with the other side of head. Cross the two twist lengths and wrap them around head. Secure the ends of the twists with a pin or barrette. Decorate the style with a looped ribbon tied in a bow around the twists at the base of the neck. The most classic hairstyle for younger women is a simple look with a few decorations. Leave hair down and flowing. Pull back a small clump of hair from each temple and braid it, using a small barrette to clasp the strands together at the back of head. Place a gem or bead decorated circlet on head. A circlet is basically a necklace that goes around forehead. 12
  • 14. what to s ee and do Now the Italy will be the best productive country in the history of art with large numbers of outstanding masters to be found in many centers and in all the major fields painting, sculpture, and architecture. You will be fall in love with beautiful Italian art and architecture! Botticelli- The Birth of Venus Michelangelo- Genesis Art Artists came to be supported not only by churchmen but also by private collectors. The Italian wealthy patrons create a new demand for pictures of secular subjects. They want art that show joy in human beauty and life’s pleasures. New style of the Italian art is more lifelike than in the art of the 12th and 13th century. Italian artists study perspective, or the differences in the way things look when they are close to something or far away. The artists paint in a way that showed these differences. As a result, their paintings seem to have depth. In Italy, art and science are connected very closely. Both of scientist and artist try to get mastery of the physical world and the art of painting profit by two scientific fields that called anatomy and mathematical perspective. Anatomy make possible a more accurate representaion of the human body. Perspective in painting is the rendering on a two dimensional surface of the illusion of three dimensions. Artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Bellini and Albrecht Durer live and work in Italy. Michelangelo and Raphael count as Italian artists as well. Donatello emerge as one of the most famous sculptors of the period. Some of the greatest works of art in human history are created in Italy. Among them are the murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo's lifelike sculpture of David, the Mona Lisa, da Vinci's "Last Supper" and Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus". 13
  • 15. o what to see and d Leonardo’s Leonardo da Vinci is one of the famous artists in Italy. He become famous with his best artwork, Mona lisa. He was born April 15, 1452 in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci. He is not only artist, he study anatomy, aeronautics, and several other fields. Leonardo’s studio is the most popular place to visit for tourists. His artworks is display in there. When you go there, you can feel his effort and passion about art. There are also his notebooks comprising some 13000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and natural philosophy. These notes are made and maintained daily thought Leonardo’s life and travels. Leonardo’s sudio is located in his hometown, Tuscan. Let’s go to Leonardo’s Studio. A THOUSAND WORDS ARE NOT WORTH ONE SEEING! 14
  • 16. Architecture what to see Special style architecture began in Florence, Italy. Italy had never used gothic architecture, and do so when gothic became less popular, Italy had something different for the people to look to. The style spread to the area around Florence, encompassing Rome and Milan. A general feature of Italian architecture is the dome. Almost all Italian cathedrals have domes in Italy. Many domes have paintings or decorations on the ceilings. Some good examples of great Italian architecture with domes are the Duomo of Florence, and St. Peter's cathedral in Rome. In Italy, architects train as humanists help raise the status of their profession from skilled laborer to artist. They hope to create structures that will appeal to both emotion and reason. Three key figures in Italy important architecture are Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, and Andrea Palladio. #Church of San Lorenzo Florence, principal Italian architect Brunelleschi. This is the first church designed by Brunelleschi, commissioned by the powerful, philanthropic Medici family. Inside the church are many of the best examples of religious Italian art, by Bronzino, Donatello, and Lippi. The Medici family commissioned Brunelleschi to update it to the new style of Italian architecture. He did design it, but died before work was completed. # Laurentian Library, principal architect Michelangelo. The Laurentian Library is in the cloister of San Lorenzo. Michelangelo designed this, with later oversight from fellow special style of architects Vasari and Ammannati. The Laurentian Library is considered one of the best works to represent peculiarly style of Italian Brunelleschi- Church of San Lorenzo Michelangelo- 15
  • 17. where to stay Local House Travelers need over night accommodations for sleep and rest. They are extremely expensive so If you don’t have enough money for it, you can spend at least one night in a stranger’s house. Most of Italian people welcome quests who has some interesting news for them. Normal houses in Italy are crowded, noisy, and dirty. Family lives together in a huge single room. Don’t expect that you are going to get your own bed. If you stay with wealthy someone wooden beams will hold up the ceilings. Expensive carpets and tiles cover the floor. A rich merchant’s house may be two or even three stories high. On the first floor, a large kitchen servers as a dining room. There is a big fire place for cooking, light, and heat. Public Accommodation Inns are located the main roadways across the countryside. If you don’t want to stay in local areas, the guards at the gate may welcome you a pass to an inn. The innkeeper will sigh the pass for you. In some areas, inn workers may meet you on the road and help to carry your bags to their inn. A good tip for finding inn is to look for a colorful sign. Many inns have names such as ‘The Lion’, or ‘The Red Cap’. A really small inn have just a leafy branch of piece of grapevine hung over do. It’s good way that share the expensive room with other travelers. You can save your money. However you have t careful about keep your sanitation in little smelly room. 15
  • 18. wha t to eat Food and Drinks In Italy, many food are discovered, developed of introduced. Many new foodstuffs came to Europe such as corn, tomatoes, peppers, sweet potatoes, chocolate, allspice, yams, pineapple, peanuts, vanilla, green beans, and turkey. However it took considerable time to become generally accepted and known. At first, corn was used as an ornamental, but it rapidly become a food of the poor, who are always eager to try new foods. Corn become so plentiful that it is ground into meal and eventually become synonymous with polenta. Cooks of the Italy work with many foodstuff and herbs and create fantastic meals. Root vegetables, such as carrots, caraway and parsnips are always popular in Italy. They are easy to grow and store. Asparagus is the vegetable for special day. Salad greens, such as endive, chicory, lettuce and watercress are also very popular in Italian foods. Italian people also like fruit. They usually eat fruit after main meal. The Italian people enjoy to drink, and as water is often unclean, it is a necessity. The poor drink ale, mead or cider and the rich are able to drink many different types of wines. Beer is not only one of the oldest fermenting beverages used by man, but it is also the one which is most in vogue in Italy. This is the Recipe of Zanzarella. It is one of the popular soup in Italy. It is pretty easy Recipe for you. It will be good activity because you can learn Italian food with making food. I hope this soup tastes just right to you. Let’s start to make it! Zanzarella Take seven eggs, half a pound of grated cheese, and ground bread all blended together. Put this into the pot where the saffron broth is made, when it begins to boil. When you have stirred it two or three times with a spoon, compose your dishes, for it is quickly done. Saffron broth (see above: one recipe) 4 eggs 3 cups ground mozzarella cheese 3 slices ground bread 17
  • 19. how to stay hy sa fe and healt Diseases and dangers The Black Death is one of the worst natural disasters. It took place in 1347. A great plague swept over Europe, ravaged cities causing widespread hysteria and death. The primary culprits in transmitting this disease were oriental rat fleas carried on the back of black rats. The plague had a devastation effect on every aspect of life. One third of the population of Europe died. It has affected the people in now. The Bubonic plague is one of the most terrible diseases ever. The plague is one that killed millions. People tried to find treatments to heal the infected but nothing would work. People in the Italy are more interested in medicine and develop the medicine technology than 13th century. Physicians and scholars begin to scientifically study medicine. Arabic pharmaceutical practices are studied and improved, and medicines like laudanum. They are developed to stop or reduce pain. Some doctors begin to investigate the spread of infectious diseases. Italian people also try to prevent their diseases by listening and playing music. They choose music therapy to protect their body. When infectious diseases happen, Italian people use music which raise their consciousness. They believe it prevent diseases. 18
  • 20. Who’s who in renaisafe Europe There are many people contribute to big changes of Europe. Famous people in cultural movements and revival of art, both men and women, achieve prominence in the fields of arts, literature, science, exploration and philosophy. There are numerous people who were important role of culture revival in Europe. I will introduce 4 important people to you. leonardo da vinci He was born April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy. He was one of the most important artists in Italy. However he was also proficient in engineering mathematics, architecture, geology, botany, physiology, anatomy, sculpture, music and poetry. He was always experimenting. Leonardo got his start as an artist around 1469, when his father apprenticed him to the fabled workshop of Verocchio. Verocchio's specialty was perspective, which artists had only recently begun to get the hang of, and Leonardo quickly mastered its challenges. In fact, Leonardo quickly surpassed Verocchio, and by the time he was in his early twenties he was downright famous. Leonardo sought a universal language in painting. With perspective and other realistic elements, Leonardo tried to create faithful renditions of life. In a culture previously dominated by highly figurative and downright strange religious paintings, Leonardo's desire to paint things realistically was bold and fresh. No slouch when it came to the techniques of the day, Leonardo went beyond his teaching by making a scientific study of light and shadow in nature. It dawned on him that objects were not comprised of outlines, but were actually three- dimensional bodies defined by light and shadow. Known as chiaroscuro, this technique gave his paintings the soft, lifelike quality that made older paintings look cartoony and flat. Ever the perfectionist, Leonardo turned to science in the quest to improve his artwork. His study of nature and anatomy emerged in his stunningly realistic paintings, and his dissections of the human body paved the way for remarkably accurate figures. He was the first artist to study the physical proportions of men, women and children and to use these studies to determine the "ideal" human figure. All in all, Leonardo believed that the artist must know not just the rules of perspective, but all the laws of nature. The eye, he believed, was the perfect instrument for learning these laws, and the artist the perfect person to illustrate them. 19
  • 21. pe W ho’s who in renaisafe Euro Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi was the father of Renaissacne architecture and the most prominent architect in Italy, during his lifetime. Filippo Brunelleschi, the son of a lawyer, was born in Florence, Italy in 1377. He had passion for mathematics and architecture. He began repairing town houses and buildings. Filippo continued with his studies of architecture in Rome. Working with clocks, wheels, gears and weights, Brunelleschi improved his exceptional skills that would help him construct some of the greatest pieces of architecture in 14th and 15th century. Filippo Brunelleschi died on April 16, 1446, at the age of sixty-nine, after many years of contributing to Italian culture. He was laid to rest by the citizens of Florence, under the floor of the Cathedral of Florence. Filippo formulated techniques for lifting construction materials into position and creating a self-supporting upper shell of domes. The Cathedral of Florence was Brunelleschi's most famous work because of its dome or cupola. It was completed without supporting scaffolding, columns, arches or pilasters. The actual cathedral was started by Arnolfio di Cambio and built over 150 years. The dome was finished in 1436 and was 91 m high. Its point was sixteen meters high and thirty meters in diameter. Brunelleschi brought new scaffolding, arches and hoists, and lighter masonry into European architecture. Brunelleschi made a huge impact on architecture in the Italy. His work was a model for much that followed. This outstanding and unique character developed the concept of linear perspective, showing depth on a flat surface. He also influenced some of the great minds, such as Michelangelo and Donato Bramante. Accomplishments * The church of San Lorenzo * The church of San Spirito * The Pazzi Chapel * Santa Maria degli Angeli * The Pitti Palace * The Palazzo Quaratesi * Loggia at San Pero a Grada * The Cathedral of Florence 20
  • 22. in W ho’s who renais afe Europe Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio was Italian writer, scholar, and humanist. He is one of the founders of the revival of literature in Europe. Boccaccio was most probably born in Tuscany, the illegitimate son of a merchant of Certaldo. He launched Boccaccio on a commercial career, during which he spent some time at Paris. As a young man, Boccaccio began to write stories in verse and prose. Up to 1350 Boccaccio lived at Florence and at Naples, producing prose tales, pastorals, and poems. After 1350 Boccaccio became a diplomat entrusted with important public affairs, and a scholar devoted to the new learning. In 1358 he completed his great work, the Decameron, begun some ten years before. This collection of 100 short stories includes tragedy and humor from Greek and Latin Classic, Italian life, and French folk stories. It is based in a remote villa, where a group of people have settled to avoid the plague. He criticize degradation of Catholic Church. The people had enthusiasm for Decameron. The influence of the Decameron on European literature has been lasting, not merely in Italy, but in France and England. Chaucer and Shakespeare both borrowed from it. The Decameron has also been the subject of poems by Keats, Tennyson, Longfellow, Swinburne and George Eliot. During his last years Boccaccio lived principally in retirement at Certaldo, and would have entered into holy orders, moved by repentance for the follies of his youth, had he not been dissuaded by Petrarch. Boccaccio 21
  • 23. Who’s who in renaisafe Europe Andreas Vesalius In 1500 the most important books used in the training of doctors were those written by Claudius Galen. Galen's ideas had been dominant for hundreds of years, but were only proved wrong for the first time by Andreas Vesalius. Vesalius was born in Brussels and completed his medical training in Paris. He went on to become Professor of Anatomy at Padua University in Italy. During the 15th and 16th century, Padua was a famous centre for medical training. Vesalius believed that the dissection of human bodies was necessary if doctors were to find out how bodies worked. However, the dissection of human bodies was not allowed by the Church. Vesalius therefore had to resort to taking bones from graves and even stealing a body from the gallows so that he could explore the anatomy of the human body. Vesalius's work brought about an important change in medical thinking. He was able to prove that some of Galen's theories were wrong. Galen, who was only able to dissect animals, assumed that humans had the same anatomy. Vesalius by performing dissections on humans revealed anatomical structures previously unknown. Vesalius helped establish surgery as a separate medical profession. At the time, though he was criticised, as many people refused to believe that Galen's work could be wrong. The popularity of Vesalius's book, however, meant that his views gradually gained acceptance and greater emphasis began to be placed upon the study of anatomy in medical training. 22
  • 24. Bibliography • Joe. "Venice During the Renaissance." Yukon Education Student Network - Home. 12 Oct. 2009 <http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/middleages/venice/venice.html>. • "Renaissance Florence." Nova Online Home Page. 12 Oct. 2009 <http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/ evans/Student/Florence/index.html>. • "Renaissance Travel: How People Traveled During the Renaissance | Suite101.com." W European History: Roman conquest to Viking invasions, Renaissance to Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, European Union to the War on Terror, Denmark to Portugal, Iceland to Germany. | Suite101.com. 21 Feb. 2009. 12 Oct. 2009 <http://weuropeanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/renaissance_travel>. • "The Renaissance." Browse the World at mrdowling.com. 5 Jan. 2005. 12 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.mrdowling.com/704renaissance.html>. • " Backgrounds to the Italian Renaissance." Washington State University - Pullman, Washington . 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REN/BACK.HTM>. • Esaak, Shelley. "The Renaissance in Venice - Art History Basics on the Venetian School - ca 1450-1600." Art History Resources for Students, Enthusiasts, Artists and Educators - Artist Biographies - Art Timelines - Images and Picture Galleries. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/ven_ren.htm>. • "Humanism and the Renaissance." Renaissance Faires, Renaissance Fairs and Renaissance Festivals. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.all-about-renaissance-faires.com/renaissance_info/ renaissance_and_humanism.htm>. • "Italy during the Renaissance." Home | W. W. Norton & Company. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/resource/italy.htm>. • "Renaissance Travel: How People Traveled During the Renaissance | Suite101.com." W European History: Roman conquest to Viking invasions, Renaissance to Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, European Union to the War on Terror, Denmark to Portugal, Iceland to Germany. | Suite101.com. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://weuropeanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/renaissance_travel>. • "Rome, city, Italy: Renaissance and Modern Rome — Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help. — Infoplease.com. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0860805.html>. • "The Fifteenth Century and the Florence Renaissance." Florence,Italy:Hotels,Bed & Breakfasts,Holiday Apartments Accommodation. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.yourwaytoflorence.com/ db/storia/chp9.htm>. 23
  • 25. • "Beauty through the ages - The Renaissance - The Beauty Biz - Article." Beauty, fashion, health, diet - articles about all aspects of the world of beauty. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.thebeautybiz.com/78/article/history/beauty-through-ages-renaissance>. • Craven, Jackie. "Renaissance Architecture - What is Renaissance Architecture." Architecture and House Styles - Architecture and House Styles Facts and Photos. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// architecture.about.com/od/periodsstyles/g/renaissance.htm>. • "Death and mortality." Internet Shakespeare Editions. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/society/death1.html>. • Ghuaire, Lady Faoiltighearna inghean mhic. "Italian Renaissance Hair Taping." MF graffix. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.mfgraffix.com/hird/faoilt/hairtape.html>. • "Renaissance Art." Browse the World at mrdowling.com. 5 Jan. 2005. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.mrdowling.com/704-art.html>. • "renaissance clothing." A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety ::Indianchild.com. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.indianchild.com/dresses/renaissance_clothing.htm>. • Etruscans, the time the. "The History of Italian Food: The Evolution of Food in Italy | Suite101.com." Italian History | Suite101.com. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://italianhistory.suite101.com/ article.cfm/the_history_of_italian_food>. • "Italian Renaissance Food." Translation Services | Interpreters | Intercultural Communication | Cross Cultural Training. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Italy/ Italian-Renaissance-Food/1313>. • "Leonardo da Vinci | Renaissance Man." Museum of Science, Boston | Home. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.mos.org/leonardo/bio.html>. • "Renaissance -- Out of the Middle Ages." Teacher Professional Development and Teacher Resources by Annenberg Media. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.learner.org/interactives/renaissance/ middleages.html>. • • "Andreas Vesalius." Schoolshistory.org.uk - online lessons - GCSE study aids - Teachers resources. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/vesalius.htm>. • "Brunelleschi." Yukon Education Student Network - Home. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/renaissance/brunelleschi.html>. • "File:Leonardo da Vinci- Vitruvian Man.JPG - Wikimedia Commons." Wikimedia Commons. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leonardo_da_Vinci-_Vitruvian_Man.JPG>. • "Giovanni Boccaccio." Fajardo-Acosta.com. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://fajardo-acosta.com/worldlit/ boccaccio/>. • "Integrated Curriculum in Secondary Education: Geography and History-3º ESO." Historia del Siglo 20 - El sitio web de la historia del siglo XX. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.historiasiglo20.org/ MEC-BC/3-8-leonardo.htm>. 24
  • 26. • "4-5 Michelangelo : Genesis." Christus Rex. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.christusrex.org/www1/sistine/4-Genesis.html>. • " Basilica di San Lorenzo." Florence Hotels Accommodation:Hotel in Florence,Italy:Online Reservation,Direct Booking. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.firenzealbergo.it/EN/Experience-Florence/chianti-tuscany/pages/ Basilica_San_Lorenzo.aspx>. • Complications, the music that he takes the musician into his service.. "Church of San Lorenzo." Iowa State University Department of Music. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// www.music.iastate.edu/courses/471/s_lorenzo2.htm>. • "Genesis syllabus." University of Oregon. 15 Oct. 2009 <http:// darkwing.uoregon.edu/~dfalk/courses/genesis/syll.htm>. • "The Black Death, 1348." EyeWitness to History - history through the eyes of those who lived it. 15 Oct. 2009 <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ plague.htm>. Publisher: Chloe Pack Publication wife: BISS international school 25 Issued date:01. 09. 1560

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