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  • 1. RED RIVER FLOODS
  • 2. Photograph: dacotahsgirl
  • 3. Red River
  • 4. 2009
  • 5. AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  • 6. Red River~ 7 miles FARGO
  • 7. Photograph: Sco Olson/Ge y Images
  • 8. Photograph: AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster
  • 9. AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster
  • 10. Photograph: gfpeck Red River flood obelisk Grand Forks
  • 11. 1997
  • 12. Greg Brooks, Geological Survey of Canada
  • 13. Grand Forks, North Dakota 1997 flood and fire
  • 14. 1950 Red River flood
  • 15. AP Photo/The Gaze e, Jonathan D. Woods
  • 16. What causes severe Red River floods?
  • 17. 3 main factors
  • 18. 1 weather
  • 19. 2 geology
  • 20. 3 natural history
  • 21. 1 weather
  • 22. X
  • 23. How you make a Red River flood
  • 24. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 25. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 26. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 27. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 28. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 29. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 30. How you make a Red River floodOct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr
  • 31. Photograph: kodoma (home)
  • 32. Winnipeg Manitoba
  • 33. Lake Winnipeg
  • 34. Hudson Bay
  • 35. Photograph: AP Photo/The Canadian Press, Winnipeg Free Press-Wayne Glowacki
  • 36. X
  • 37. chain of events
  • 38. 2 geology
  • 39. Lake Agassiz
  • 40. Photograph: neeravbha
  • 41. mud
  • 42. Lake Agassiz
  • 43. Photograph: Nick Saltmarsh
  • 44. Photograph: Ma hew Bietz
  • 45. Photograph: calwest
  • 46. Red River valley
  • 47. Photograph: Morningstarphoto
  • 48. Photograph: woody1778a
  • 49. Climate history of North America Younger Demise of Laurentide Dryas Ice Sheet 20 16 12 8 4 0 THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO Final drainage of Lake AgassizLAST GLACIAL MODERN MAXIMUM OBSERVATIONS
  • 50. what happened before?
  • 51. 3 natural history
  • 52. Winnipeg Manitoba
  • 53. 1812
  • 54. Red River
  • 55. 1826
  • 56. MAY 3The river rose six feet last night perpendicularly, several tents arenow pitched upon the most elevated spots: terror is strongly depictedon every countenance… David Jones Journal
  • 57. MAY 5On a point of the river above us, four horses and a barn were sweptoff by the force of the ice and the ruins floated past us to–day on thesurface thereof… David Jones Journal
  • 58. MAY 5The force of [the ice] is inconceivable; the lo iest elm trees arecarried away like the most inconsiderable things. David Jones Journal
  • 59. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St.. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  • 60. 1826 flood 1950 flood
  • 61. what happened before?
  • 62. Photograph: S.L.M.
  • 63. Tree-ring display at elementary schoolPhotograph: Tom Swetnam
  • 64. “ RINGS IN THE BRANCHES OF SAWED TREES SHOWTHE NUMBER OF YEARS AND, ACCORDING TO THEIR THICKNESS, THE YEARS WHICH WERE MORE OR LESS DRY. ” Leonardo da Vinci
  • 65. Photograph: Ralph Sievert
  • 66. Photograph: Ma hew Bietz
  • 67. Red River ManitobaPhotograph: Greg Brooks
  • 68. Photograph: Ralph Sievert
  • 69. 93St.. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  • 70. 93St.. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  • 71. Photo: Erik Nielsen
  • 72. 95Photo: Erik Nielsen
  • 73. 350 years of Red River floodsSt. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  • 74. ditches vs. levees
  • 75. Photograph: JPark99
  • 76. Winnipeg population: 680,000 River diversion Main channelPhotograph: Greg Brooks
  • 77. proposed leveePhotograph: City of Fargo
  • 78. Why don’t people just move?
  • 79. 1812
  • 80. 1826
  • 81. “It is the good God who afflicts me.”
  • 82. Photograph: AdolfGalland
  • 83. Photograph: StephenZacharias
  • 84. people didn’t want to move
  • 85. Winnipeg Manitoba
  • 86. Photograph: gfpeck
  • 87. Greg Brooks, Geological Survey of Canada
  • 88. What causes severe Red River floods?
  • 89. 1 weather
  • 90. 2 geology3 natural history