What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota

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  • 1. Bachelor of Science Master of Science Doctor of PhilosophyUniversity of Winnipeg University of Western Ontario University of Arizona
  • 2. Source: Dave Sauchyn
  • 3. Behold, there comes seven years of great plentythroughout all the land of Egypt: And there shallarise a er them seven years of famine; and all theplenty shall be forgo en in the land of Egypt; andthe famine shall consume the land; Genesis 41, 29-30
  • 4. ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY
  • 5. Tree-ring display at elementary schoolSource: Tom Swetnam
  • 6. DENDROCHRONOLOGY ISMUCH MORE THAN JUST COUNTING TREE RINGS.
  • 7. “ RINGS ” IN THE BRANCHES OF SAWED TREES SHOWTHE NUMBER OF YEARS AND, ACCORDING TO THEIR THICKNESS, THE YEARS WHICH WERE MORE OR LESS DRY. Leonardo da Vinci
  • 8. Andrew Douglass University of Arizona
  • 9. “ Crossdating is the recognition of the same ring pa ern in different trees, so that the actual growth date of any one ring of the pa ern is the same in the different trees and one may carry a chronology across from tree to tree. ” A.E. Douglass Journal of Forestry, 1941
  • 10. Pueblo Bonito New Mexico (before it was excavated)
  • 11. Source: Stones 55
  • 12. Source: mlhradio
  • 13. Source: Alan Stark
  • 14. Tree-ring display at elementary school Photograph:Tom Swetnam
  • 15. “ Tree-ring analysis is one of the most powerful tools available for the study of environmental change and the identification of fundamental relationships between tree growth and climate. Edward Cook and Neil Pederson ” Uncertainty, Emergence, and Statistics in Dendrochronology
  • 16. WHAT ARCHEOLOGISTS NEED TO KNOW ABOUTDENDRO-CHRONOLOGY IN MINNESOTA
  • 17. How old is the oldest tree in Minnesota?
  • 18. The Seward oak 330 yr?Source: Ralph Sievert
  • 19. Bur oak >450 yrSource: Joe Zeleznik NDSU
  • 20. White pine 1714Source: Kurt Kipfmueller
  • 21. White cedar 1452Source: Danny Margoles
  • 22. Source: Robert Simon, NASA and the Woods Hole Research Center
  • 23. Source: Jonathan Frazier
  • 24. Source: Erik Nielsen
  • 25. 42Source: Erik Nielsen
  • 26. Source: Baillie (1982)
  • 27. APPLICATIONDating wood artifacts
  • 28. Source: Pearce Paul Creasman
  • 29. ‘Rat River’ House 1859Source: Erik Nielsen
  • 30. THREE MAIN REQUIREMENTSFOR TREE-RING DATING WOOD ARTIFACTS
  • 31. 1 Specimens should have enough rings to describe the unique sequence of growth (generally, more than 80 years).
  • 32. 2 The ring sequence should exhibit a high degree of year-to-year variability (in other words, each ring should not look like every other ring).
  • 33. 3 The artifact should have been constructed from local trees, with the wood transported not more than a few hundred kilometers from its cu ing location.
  • 34. Dugout canoe McLoud County Historical Museum, Minnesota
  • 35. APPLICATIONReconstructing past droughts
  • 36. “The growth of trees is undoubtably controlledmore by the movement of water than by themovement of any other single substance.” Hal Fri s Tree Rings and Climate
  • 37. water stressnarrow ring reduced photosynthesis less cell expansion reduced cell division
  • 38. Tree rings provide the long perspective on drought severity Drought severity Weather measurements Estimated from tree ringsSource: St. George et al., Journal of Climate, 2009
  • 39. NORTH AMERICAN DROUGHT ATLASCook et al., 2007, Earth Science Reviews
  • 40. Tree-ring estimates of summer drought across North America AD 1452Source: Cook and Krusic, 2004
  • 41. Drought (and tree growth) can be ‘tuned’ to different seasonsSt. George et al., The Holocene, 2010
  • 42. APPLICATIONUnderstanding natural hazards
  • 43. floods climate landscape changeforest dynamics ecology
  • 44. AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  • 45. 69St.. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  • 46. Source: Lane Johnson
  • 47. 1875 1653Source: Lane Johnson
  • 48. DENDROCHRONOLOGY ISMUCH MORE THAN JUST COUNTING TREE RINGS.
  • 49. Kurt Kipfmueller University of MinnesotaPhoto: Calvin Ferris
  • 50. CURRENT PROJECTS How has the hydrology of Lake Winnipeg changed during the late Holocene? How has climate and human activity affected forest fires in the Boundary Waters? How is the snowpack in the central Rockies changing? How o en do severe floods occur on the Red River, and why?Does decadal climate variability affect forest ecology and wildfire risks?
  • 51. INTRODUCTION TO DENDROCHRONOLOGY
  • 52. CLIMATE VARIATIONS
  • 53. National Geographic ‘Beam Expeditions’ 1920s
  • 54. Social Sciences Tower