September 6What are tree rings?
Source: dylancantwell
MAJOR TOPICSWhat are trees? of basic anatomy The cambium            Tour
GEOG5839 WHAT ARE TREES?
Tree at ChancellorsvilleSource: Andy Frasse o
Trees are not limited to a single order or even division of plants.          “Tree-ness” is defined by a specific   GROWTH F...
Trees are perennial plants, which are plantsthat live for more than two years.
Trees have a single main stem (or trunk).
Shrubs have multiple stems(and are not trees).
Plants are o en required to a ain a minimum height at maturityto qualify as trees (usually between 3 and 6 meters tall).
Trees are woody plants (a category that also includes shrubsand some vines).
Woody plants are capable of secondary thickening,adding new yearly growth layers of cells onto theaccumulated growth of pr...
Most recent               growthOldest wood
Cross-sectional plane
Cross-sectional                                     (or transverse) plane                                     Radial plane...
Photograph: Dave_Gray
GEOG5839TOUR OF BASIC ANATOMY
Heartwood              SapwoodCambium               Bark
tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsThe vascular cambium is a lateral meristemin the vascular tissue of plants.
The vascular cambium is also the source of boththe secondary xylem (inwards, towards the pith)and the secondary phloem (ou...
Photograph: easagor
BarkPith       Cambium
The pith is the small core of so spongey tissuethat forms the central longitudinal axis of a treestem, branch or twig.
Scots pine                              Pinus sylvestrisSource: Fritz Schweingruber
Common beech                              Fagus sylvestrisSource: Fritz Schweingruber
Sapwood
Source: sonykus
Heartwood            Ph              oto                 syn                    the                       tic             ...
GYMNOSPERMS  VS.ANGIOSPERMS
Gymnosperms (coniferous)
Gymnosperms like this Douglas-fir have encapsulated seeds.
Red pinePinus resinosa
Earlywood                           Latewood                   Total ring-widthEastern hemlockTsuga canadensis
TracheidsScots pinePinus sylvestris
Tracheids are elongated cells that functionin food conduction and structural support.
large cells                                               thin cell walls                                    small cells  ...
RayScots pinePinus sylvestris
Rays are fla ened bands of tissue that extendhorizontally in a radial plane through the tree stem.
Angiosperms(deciduous)
White oakQuercus alba
Angiosperms like this oak have exposed seeds.
Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
Earlywood vesselsEnglish oakQuercus robur
Latewood                 vesselsEnglish oakQuercus robur
Vessel elements are a type of hardwood cellthat has a relatively large diameter, thick cell walland perforate (open) ends.
Fibre                                          English oak                                          Quercus roburPhotograp...
Fibres are an elongated hardwood cell with thick wallsthat contributes greatly to the material strength of wood.
Ray                                        English oak                                        Quercus roburPhotograph: Fri...
RING POROUS   DIFFUSE POROUS
Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
Sycamore mapleAcer psudoplantanus
European beachFagus sylvatica
A growth-ring boundary in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-Orford cedar)Source: Bu erfield and Meylan (1980)
GEOG5839 THE CAMBIUM
tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsThe vascular cambium is a lateral meristemin the vascular tissue of plants.
ca  m bi  um          phloem  xylem
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM1Self-sustainingThe cambium is a self-sustaining system, and retains itsfunctions for a long...
Bristlecone pine          Pinus longaevaPhotograph: mlhradio
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM2   Resource-intensive    As the cambium grows, it consumes scare resources that cannot    b...
Limber pinePinus flexilis
Limber pinePinus flexilis
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM3   Flexible    Cells produced by the cambium (called ‘cambial    derivatives) can be differe...
Pinus spp.
Source: Marchand, P. J. 1996. Life in the Cold: AnIntroduction to Winter Ecology, 3rd ed. UniversityPress of New England. ...
DORMANT CAMBIUM      1 - 10 cells  viscous protoplasm   sharp cell walls
Source: Ben Cooper
ca  m bi  um          phloem  xylem
DORMANT CAMBIUM        ACTIVE CAMBIUM      1 - 10 cells          8 - 20 cells  viscous protoplasm      fluid protoplasm   s...
CAMBIAL GROWTH
Radi al file                                                Scots pine                                                Pinus...
Latewood               (prior year)                                                   phloemEarly season                  ...
Latewood             (prior year)                                      Immature earlywoodMid-season                       ...
Mature earlywood   Immature                                 latewoodLate season                                           ...
A growth-ring boundary in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-Orford cedar)Source: Bu erfield and Meylan (1980)
September 6What are tree rings?
GEOG5839  XT C L AS SNE
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
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GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?

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Tree rings are a powerful natural archive of past environments. But how do trees form rings? And what are the major types of cells that make up rings in conifers and deciduous trees?

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GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?

  1. 1. September 6What are tree rings?
  2. 2. Source: dylancantwell
  3. 3. MAJOR TOPICSWhat are trees? of basic anatomy The cambium Tour
  4. 4. GEOG5839 WHAT ARE TREES?
  5. 5. Tree at ChancellorsvilleSource: Andy Frasse o
  6. 6. Trees are not limited to a single order or even division of plants. “Tree-ness” is defined by a specific GROWTH FORM.
  7. 7. Trees are perennial plants, which are plantsthat live for more than two years.
  8. 8. Trees have a single main stem (or trunk).
  9. 9. Shrubs have multiple stems(and are not trees).
  10. 10. Plants are o en required to a ain a minimum height at maturityto qualify as trees (usually between 3 and 6 meters tall).
  11. 11. Trees are woody plants (a category that also includes shrubsand some vines).
  12. 12. Woody plants are capable of secondary thickening,adding new yearly growth layers of cells onto theaccumulated growth of previous years.
  13. 13. Most recent growthOldest wood
  14. 14. Cross-sectional plane
  15. 15. Cross-sectional (or transverse) plane Radial plane Tangential planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
  16. 16. Photograph: Dave_Gray
  17. 17. GEOG5839TOUR OF BASIC ANATOMY
  18. 18. Heartwood SapwoodCambium Bark
  19. 19. tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsThe vascular cambium is a lateral meristemin the vascular tissue of plants.
  20. 20. The vascular cambium is also the source of boththe secondary xylem (inwards, towards the pith)and the secondary phloem (outwards), and islocated between these tissues in the stem and root.
  21. 21. Photograph: easagor
  22. 22. BarkPith Cambium
  23. 23. The pith is the small core of so spongey tissuethat forms the central longitudinal axis of a treestem, branch or twig.
  24. 24. Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisSource: Fritz Schweingruber
  25. 25. Common beech Fagus sylvestrisSource: Fritz Schweingruber
  26. 26. Sapwood
  27. 27. Source: sonykus
  28. 28. Heartwood Ph oto syn the tic wa ste s
  29. 29. GYMNOSPERMS VS.ANGIOSPERMS
  30. 30. Gymnosperms (coniferous)
  31. 31. Gymnosperms like this Douglas-fir have encapsulated seeds.
  32. 32. Red pinePinus resinosa
  33. 33. Earlywood Latewood Total ring-widthEastern hemlockTsuga canadensis
  34. 34. TracheidsScots pinePinus sylvestris
  35. 35. Tracheids are elongated cells that functionin food conduction and structural support.
  36. 36. large cells thin cell walls small cells thick cell walls Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  37. 37. RayScots pinePinus sylvestris
  38. 38. Rays are fla ened bands of tissue that extendhorizontally in a radial plane through the tree stem.
  39. 39. Angiosperms(deciduous)
  40. 40. White oakQuercus alba
  41. 41. Angiosperms like this oak have exposed seeds.
  42. 42. Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
  43. 43. Earlywood vesselsEnglish oakQuercus robur
  44. 44. Latewood vesselsEnglish oakQuercus robur
  45. 45. Vessel elements are a type of hardwood cellthat has a relatively large diameter, thick cell walland perforate (open) ends.
  46. 46. Fibre English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  47. 47. Fibres are an elongated hardwood cell with thick wallsthat contributes greatly to the material strength of wood.
  48. 48. Ray English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fri s Schweingruber
  49. 49. RING POROUS DIFFUSE POROUS
  50. 50. Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
  51. 51. Sycamore mapleAcer psudoplantanus
  52. 52. European beachFagus sylvatica
  53. 53. A growth-ring boundary in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-Orford cedar)Source: Bu erfield and Meylan (1980)
  54. 54. GEOG5839 THE CAMBIUM
  55. 55. tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsThe vascular cambium is a lateral meristemin the vascular tissue of plants.
  56. 56. ca m bi um phloem xylem
  57. 57. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM1Self-sustainingThe cambium is a self-sustaining system, and retains itsfunctions for a long time (sometimes for centuries or millennia).
  58. 58. Bristlecone pine Pinus longaevaPhotograph: mlhradio
  59. 59. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM2 Resource-intensive As the cambium grows, it consumes scare resources that cannot be used for growth by the rest of the tree.
  60. 60. Limber pinePinus flexilis
  61. 61. Limber pinePinus flexilis
  62. 62. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM3 Flexible Cells produced by the cambium (called ‘cambial derivatives) can be differentiated into the range of cells found in the xylem and phloem.
  63. 63. Pinus spp.
  64. 64. Source: Marchand, P. J. 1996. Life in the Cold: AnIntroduction to Winter Ecology, 3rd ed. UniversityPress of New England. Hanover, NH. 304 pp.
  65. 65. DORMANT CAMBIUM 1 - 10 cells viscous protoplasm sharp cell walls
  66. 66. Source: Ben Cooper
  67. 67. ca m bi um phloem xylem
  68. 68. DORMANT CAMBIUM ACTIVE CAMBIUM 1 - 10 cells 8 - 20 cells viscous protoplasm fluid protoplasm sharp cell walls semi-transparent walls
  69. 69. CAMBIAL GROWTH
  70. 70. Radi al file Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  71. 71. Latewood (prior year) phloemEarly season Immature earlywood
  72. 72. Latewood (prior year) Immature earlywoodMid-season phloem Mature earlywood
  73. 73. Mature earlywood Immature latewoodLate season phloem
  74. 74. A growth-ring boundary in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-Orford cedar)Source: Bu erfield and Meylan (1980)
  75. 75. September 6What are tree rings?
  76. 76. GEOG5839 XT C L AS SNE
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