GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings?

on

  • 1,341 views

Tree rings are a powerful natural archive of past environments. But how do trees form rings? And what are the major types of cells that make up rings in conifers and deciduous trees?

Tree rings are a powerful natural archive of past environments. But how do trees form rings? And what are the major types of cells that make up rings in conifers and deciduous trees?

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,341
Views on SlideShare
1,018
Embed Views
323

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
21
Comments
1

1 Embed 323

http://blog.lib.umn.edu 323

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings? GEOG5839.02. What are tree rings? Presentation Transcript

  • September 6What are tree rings?
  • Source: dylancantwell
  • MAJOR TOPICSWhat are trees? of basic anatomy The cambium Tour
  • GEOG5839 WHAT ARE TREES?
  • Tree at ChancellorsvilleSource: Andy Frasse o
  • Trees are not limited to a single order or even division of plants. “Tree-ness” is defined by a specific GROWTH FORM.
  • Trees are perennial plants, which are plantsthat live for more than two years.
  • Trees have a single main stem (or trunk).
  • Shrubs have multiple stems(and are not trees).
  • Plants are o en required to a ain a minimum height at maturityto qualify as trees (usually between 3 and 6 meters tall).
  • Trees are woody plants (a category that also includes shrubsand some vines).
  • Woody plants are capable of secondary thickening,adding new yearly growth layers of cells onto theaccumulated growth of previous years.
  • Most recent growthOldest wood
  • Cross-sectional plane
  • Cross-sectional (or transverse) plane Radial plane Tangential planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
  • Photograph: Dave_Gray
  • GEOG5839TOUR OF BASIC ANATOMY
  • Heartwood SapwoodCambium Bark
  • tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsThe vascular cambium is a lateral meristemin the vascular tissue of plants.
  • The vascular cambium is also the source of boththe secondary xylem (inwards, towards the pith)and the secondary phloem (outwards), and islocated between these tissues in the stem and root.
  • Photograph: easagor
  • BarkPith Cambium
  • The pith is the small core of so spongey tissuethat forms the central longitudinal axis of a treestem, branch or twig.
  • Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisSource: Fritz Schweingruber
  • Common beech Fagus sylvestrisSource: Fritz Schweingruber
  • Sapwood
  • Source: sonykus
  • Heartwood Ph oto syn the tic wa ste s
  • GYMNOSPERMS VS.ANGIOSPERMS
  • Gymnosperms (coniferous)
  • Gymnosperms like this Douglas-fir have encapsulated seeds.
  • Red pinePinus resinosa
  • Earlywood Latewood Total ring-widthEastern hemlockTsuga canadensis
  • TracheidsScots pinePinus sylvestris
  • Tracheids are elongated cells that functionin food conduction and structural support.
  • large cells thin cell walls small cells thick cell walls Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  • RayScots pinePinus sylvestris
  • Rays are fla ened bands of tissue that extendhorizontally in a radial plane through the tree stem.
  • Angiosperms(deciduous)
  • White oakQuercus alba
  • Angiosperms like this oak have exposed seeds.
  • Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
  • Earlywood vesselsEnglish oakQuercus robur
  • Latewood vesselsEnglish oakQuercus robur
  • Vessel elements are a type of hardwood cellthat has a relatively large diameter, thick cell walland perforate (open) ends.
  • Fibre English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  • Fibres are an elongated hardwood cell with thick wallsthat contributes greatly to the material strength of wood.
  • Ray English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fri s Schweingruber
  • RING POROUS DIFFUSE POROUS
  • Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
  • Sycamore mapleAcer psudoplantanus
  • European beachFagus sylvatica
  • A growth-ring boundary in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-Orford cedar)Source: Bu erfield and Meylan (1980)
  • GEOG5839 THE CAMBIUM
  • tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsThe vascular cambium is a lateral meristemin the vascular tissue of plants.
  • ca m bi um phloem xylem
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM1Self-sustainingThe cambium is a self-sustaining system, and retains itsfunctions for a long time (sometimes for centuries or millennia).
  • Bristlecone pine Pinus longaevaPhotograph: mlhradio
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM2 Resource-intensive As the cambium grows, it consumes scare resources that cannot be used for growth by the rest of the tree.
  • Limber pinePinus flexilis
  • Limber pinePinus flexilis
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CAMBIUM3 Flexible Cells produced by the cambium (called ‘cambial derivatives) can be differentiated into the range of cells found in the xylem and phloem.
  • Pinus spp.
  • Source: Marchand, P. J. 1996. Life in the Cold: AnIntroduction to Winter Ecology, 3rd ed. UniversityPress of New England. Hanover, NH. 304 pp.
  • DORMANT CAMBIUM 1 - 10 cells viscous protoplasm sharp cell walls
  • Source: Ben Cooper
  • ca m bi um phloem xylem
  • DORMANT CAMBIUM ACTIVE CAMBIUM 1 - 10 cells 8 - 20 cells viscous protoplasm fluid protoplasm sharp cell walls semi-transparent walls
  • CAMBIAL GROWTH
  • Radi al file Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  • Latewood (prior year) phloemEarly season Immature earlywood
  • Latewood (prior year) Immature earlywoodMid-season phloem Mature earlywood
  • Mature earlywood Immature latewoodLate season phloem
  • A growth-ring boundary in Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-Orford cedar)Source: Bu erfield and Meylan (1980)
  • September 6What are tree rings?
  • GEOG5839 XT C L AS SNE