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GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans
 

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    GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans Presentation Transcript

    • September 12The role of the oceans
    • All of Earth’s waterSource: Howard Perlman, United States Geological Survey
    • WHAT ROLES DO THE OCEANS PLAY WITHIN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM? They absorb and reflect solar radiation. (albedo) They transport heat. (climate variability) They are source of water vapor. (greenhouse effect, precipitation) They store heat. (heat capacity, latent heat)
    • “ The low-latitude oceans are Earth’s main storage tanks of solar heat. Bill Ruddiman ” Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
    • 3Main reasons.
    • 1Physical properties of water
    • The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit massrequired to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.
    • The specific heat of water is WAY higher than any of Earth’s other surfaces. Water Ice Wood, oak Soil, wet Tar Earth, dry Brick, common Concrete, light Clay Lava Glass Granite Steel 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 cal/gSource: The Engineering Toolbox
    • Heat capacity = Density × Specific Heat cal/cm3 g/cm 3 cal/g
    • HEAT CAPACITIES60 : 5 : 2 : 1 water : ice : air : land
    • “ The low-latitude oceans are Earth’s main storage tanks of solar heat. Bill Ruddiman ” Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
    • Sun angle controls heat absorption.Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
    • Depth-temperature profile at 180°W 0 2000 Depth [m] 4000 90˚S 60˚S 30˚S 0˚ 30˚N 60˚N 90˚N Latitude 179.5WSource: Levitus and Boyer, 1994
    • Source: reefdaddy 2 Turbulent mixing
    • Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
    • The mixed layer is uppermost layer of the ocean,where temperature and salinity are relatively constant.
    • Boreal winter Depth of mixed layer (meters)Source: Giorgiogp2
    • Boreal summer Depth of mixed layer (meters)Source: Giorgiogp2
    • Depth-temperature profile at 180°W 0 2000 Depth [m] 4000 90˚S 60˚S 30˚S 0˚ 30˚N 60˚N 90˚N Latitude 179.5WSource: Levitus and Boyer, 1994
    • 3The conveyor belt
    • The thermohaline circulation
    • Source: Jonathan Cohen
    • Average annual ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxSource: NOAA PMEL Carbon Program
    • The residence time describes the average time awater molecule will spend in a specific reservoirwithin the hydrological cycle.
    • Age of ocean waters inferred from radiocarbon observationsSource: Gebbie and Huybers, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 2012
    • Antarctica and Greenland Soil Glaciers 20,000 yr 1 to 2 months 20 to 100 yr Atmosphere Groundwater 9 days 10,000 yr Lakes Snow Oceans 50 to 100 yr 2 to 6 months 3,200 yr 1 week 1 year 100 years 10,000 years1 day 1 month 10 years 1,000 years 100,000 years
    • The thermal inertia describes the resistance of a componentof the climate system to temperature change.
    • Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
    • Sensitivity to solar heating (land vs. ocean)Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
    • Pacific Decadal Oscillation index3210-1-2-3 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
    • Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index
    • September 20 Impacts on terrestrial climatesSource: Franklin Hunting
    • GEOG8280 XT C L AS SNE