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GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
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GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods

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  • 1. November 27Paleofloods
  • 2. Source: AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster
  • 3. INSURED LOSSES DUE TO FLOODS EXCEEDED $6.4 B IN 2010.Source: Swiss Re
  • 4. WORLDWIDE 11,027 PEOPLE WERE KILLED BY FLOODS.Source: Swiss Re
  • 5. Annual losses* due to floods in the United States 2005 1993 1972 1927Source: National Weather Service * adjusted for inflation
  • 6. PAST BEHAVIOR FUTURE RISKS
  • 7. Photograph: skooksie
  • 8. “100-year flood”
  • 9. The 100-year flood refers to a flood that has a 1% chanceof being equaled or exceeded in any single year.
  • 10. “ NG ” O The 100-year flood has come and gone, so, by all rights, R Tucsonans should enjoy another century of great Southwest weather. W Metropolitan Tucson Convention and Visitor’s Bureau Sent immediately a er a severe flood
  • 11. Paleoflood hydrology uses physical evidence le behindon the landscape to make inferences about past floodsthat were not directly observed or recorded by humans.
  • 12. Photograph: David Snyder Slackwater deposits Fine-grained sediments laid down by floodwaters
  • 13. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St.. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  • 14. scarring microclimatologyinjury “flood rings”
  • 15. ReadingSt. George (2010), Tree rings as paleoflood andpaleostage indicators. In Stoffel et al., (eds.),Tree Rings and Natural Hazards.
  • 16. FLOOD SCARS
  • 17. Photograph: Mark’s Postcards from Beloit
  • 18. Photograph: NDSU Ag Comm
  • 19. FLOOD SCARSThe timing of the flood can be determined by counting the numberof rings between the scar and the outside ring, and the height ofthe scar represents the minimum elevation of high water.
  • 20. INJURY
  • 21. Floods can damage trees by tilting or partial uprootingor can uproot them completely, causing their death.
  • 22. MICROCLIMATESource: Alex Drainville
  • 23. Photograph: Alex Source
  • 24. Source: ouelle e001.com
  • 25. FLOOD RINGS
  • 26. Winnipeg Manitoba
  • 27. WinnipegThe name Winnipeg is a transcription ofthe western Cree word wi-nipe-k meaning"muddy waters"
  • 28. Source: Greg Brooks
  • 29. Source: U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  • 30. Source: Greg Brooks
  • 31. Grand Forks, North Dakota 1997 flood and fire
  • 32. Source: Ma hew Bietz
  • 33. Lake Agassiz
  • 34. How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging the Red River flood hazard?What are the geological controls that govern thecharacter of Red River flooding?
  • 35. Instrumental and historical estimates of major Red River floods
  • 36. Erik Nielsen Manitoba Geological Survey
  • 37. Source: Greg Brooks
  • 38. 2008
  • 39. 1875
  • 40. Source: Erik Nielsen
  • 41. 54Source: Erik Nielsen
  • 42. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  • 43. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  • 44. In hydrology, flood observations reported as having occurredabove some threshold are known as censored data sets.
  • 45. Photograph: USGS 1979 Red River flood Drayton, North Dakota
  • 46. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  • 47. St. George et al. (2002), Tree-Ring Research
  • 48. How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging the Red River flood hazard?What are the geological controls that govern thecharacter of Red River flooding?
  • 49. 350 years of Red River floodsSource: St. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  • 50. TREES AS PALEOFLOOD INDICATORSStrengths and limitations
  • 51. Photograph: David Snyder
  • 52. Redrawn from Stahle (1990)
  • 53. Source: Steffano A ardi
  • 54. scarring microclimatologyinjury “flood rings”
  • 55. GEOG5839 XT C L AS SNE

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