GEOG5839.18, Dendrogeomorphology
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GEOG5839.18, Dendrogeomorphology GEOG5839.18, Dendrogeomorphology Presentation Transcript

  • November 8 DendrogeomorphologySource: Erica Bigio
  • HOW STABLE IS THIS MOUNTAIN SLOPE?Source: slgwv
  • HOW OFTEN DOES THIS RIVER FLOOD?Source: Nic McPhee View slide
  • HOW FAST CAN THIS GLACIER MOVE?Source: Bob Sanford View slide
  • Source: Julian Lozos Sudden change in ring-width and color a er the 1812 New Madrid earthquake.
  • “ A visual inspection of the increment rings will in no case allow determination of the process that was causing the disturbance. ” Markus Stoffel and Michelle Bollschweiler Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008
  • “ Geomorphology ma ers! Markus Stoffel and Michelle BollschweilerNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008 ”
  • PROCESS • EVENT • RESPONSE
  • PROCESS • EVENT • RESPONSEdebris flows A specific Wounded tree(in general) debris flow (scars) event
  • MASS MOVEMENTS GLACIERS DEPOSITION
  • MASS MOVEMENTS
  • Source: Munir Squires Earthflows are downslope, viscous flows of saturated, fine-grained materials.
  • Source: darkensiva A debris flow is a fast moving, liquefied landslide of unconsolidated, saturated debris.
  • Source: Washington State Department of Transportation A rockfall is the downward motion of a rock involving free falling, bouncing, rolling, and sliding.
  • How do mass movements affect the growth of treesor the demography of forests?
  • Source: Erica Bigio
  • Source: Stoffel and Bollschweiler, 2008
  • How can you distinguish the scars caused by mass movements from those caused by wildfire?
  • IMPACT FIRE
  • “ Geomorphology ma ers! Markus Stoffel and Michelle BollschweilerNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008 ”
  • Source: Brian Luckman
  • Source: Brian Luckman
  • Abrasion or impact scars are NOTthe sole source of geomorphic evidence.
  • Source: Brian Luckman
  • Source: snebtor
  • “ Partial uprooting can cause smaller trees to form vertical sprouts along their main stem, with the age of the sprout indicating the date of the flood ” that caused the change in growth habit. Sco St. George Tree Rings and Natural Hazards, 2010
  • Source: Erica Bigio
  • Compression wood• forms in conifers• formed on lower side of tree• wider rings• more latewood• denser and more bri le• tracheids are heavily lignified
  • Tension wood• occurs in hardwoods• formed on the upper side of the lean• fewer (and smaller) vessels• increased production of thick-walled fibers• reduced amount of lignification
  • Pinyon Demography at Sevilleta LTER, Central New MexicoSource: Betancourt et al. (2004)
  • Age of trees growing on rockfall slope Stoffel, Schneuwly and Bollschweiler 2010
  • Reconstructed rockfall frequency near Valais, Switzerland Schneuwly 2010
  • Glacial advances and retreats
  • Source: Dan Smith Sheared stumps killed by advance of the Saskatchewan Glacier circa 2800 yr BP
  • GLACIALFOREFIELD
  • Photograph: Brian Luckman
  • The ecesis interval is the amount of time betweenan initial disturbance and the successful establishmentof the first trees.
  • Conifers on forefields ‘ecize’ in ca. 5 to 60 years. (McCarthy and Luckman, 1993)Source: Brian Luckman
  • Source: avern
  • Source: Luckman, Geomorphology, 2000
  • Burial and erosional processes
  • Jasper Lake Alberta, Canada
  • “ Dust accumulations measured at Jasper Lake, a seasonally-filled reach of the glacially- fed Athabasca River in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, are some of ” the highest contemporary rates recorded to date. Chris Hugenholtz and Steve Wolfe Geomorphology, 2010
  • Modern surface Germination surface
  • “Adventitious” roots
  • Adventitious roots
  • Source: Erica Bigio
  • November 8 DendrogeomorphologySource: Erica Bigio
  • 1964 Alaskan earthquake
  • “ Geological evidence shows that an earthquake a ended by a tsunami, or a series of such earthquakes, ruptured at least 900 km of the Cascadia subduction ” zone along the west coast of North America between the years 1700 and 1720. David Yamaguchi et al. Nature, 1997
  • Source: Teachers on the Leading Edge
  • Source: Teachers on the Leading Edge
  • Source: Teachers on the Leading Edge
  • “ By converging on January 1700, the dates mean that Canada and the northwestern United States are plausibly subject to earthquakes of magnitude 9. ” David Yamaguchi et al. Nature, 1997
  • “ The reason that most [dendrogeomorphic] studies tend to be relatively short is because the life expectancy of trees growing in [dangerous locations] is comparatively brief. ” Sco St. George Tree Rings and Natural Hazards, 2010
  • “ Geomorphology ma ers! Markus Stoffel and Michelle BollschweilerNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008 ”
  • GEOG8280 XT C L AS S NEh p://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/people/briffa/temmaps/