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GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
 

GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?

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    GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth? GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth? Presentation Transcript

    • September 18 How does weather affect tree growth?Source: Paul Schulte
    • Red mangroveRhizophora mangle
    • Red mangroveRhizophora mangle
    • Red mangrove Rhizophora manglePhotograph: Kevin Hutchinson
    • Trees without rings (approximate)
    • Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
    • GEOG5839ARE TREE RINGS ANNUAL?
    • The “pinning” method Source: Keith Weston
    • Band dendrometer
    • Band dendrometer measurements on a white pine near Cloquet MNSource: Alm and Brown, Minnesota Forestry Notes, 1964
    • Atomic bomb test in Almogordo, New Mexico, July 16, 1945.
    • Y ? HHow do we knowWtemperate or boreal trees are ANNUAL?
    • Phenology is the study of the timing of recurringbiological events, their relationship to biotic andabiotic forces, and the inter-relations among phasesof the same or different species.
    • Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) is a common tree along rivers in Minnesota and the upper Midwest.Select trees of this species can live for up to 450 years.
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • DormancyFruit drop Bud break Flowers visible Leaf out
    • DORMANCY The buds of most temperature trees are protected by a covering of scales during the dormant period.Source: Steve Ryan
    • BUD BREAKA leaf bud is considered "breaking" once a green leaf tip isvisible at the end of the bud.
    • LEAF OUTA leaf is considered "unfolded" once its stalk or base isvisible outside of the bud.
    • FLOWERS VISIBLEFor bur oak, the male flowers hang loosely from the branchand are called catkins.
    • FRUIT DROP‘Fruit drop’ occurs when mature acorns are ripenedand have dropped from the tree.
    • Every species has its own phenological ‘calendar’ leaf out flowers visible fruit drop bud break dormancy dormancyJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb
    • “ Cambial activity is not continuous in space or in time. Kozlowski and Pallardy ” Physiology of Woody Plants
    • GEOG5839WEATHER, CLIMATE & TREES
    • temperature water day length
    • HOW DOES TEMPERATURE AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: spaka acks
    • Source: Marchand, P. J. 1996. Life in the Cold: AnIntroduction to Winter Ecology, 3rd ed. UniversityPress of New England. Hanover, NH. 304 pp.
    • carbon dioxide water oxygen water sugar 6CO2 + 12H20 ➔ 6O2 + 6H20 + C6H1206
    • TEMPERATUREhigh growth frozen water low photosynthetic rate low photosynthetic rate higher evaporation shorter growing seasonlow growth cold hot
    • HOW DOES MOISTURE AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: circulating
    • Source: Karen Rice
    • Stomata are microscopic pore on the epidermis (surface)of land plants. Stomata act as gateways that allow plantsto exchange CO2 and O2 with the atmosphere.
    • PINE NEEDLEleaf stomata
    • CO2 CO2 H2O H2O LEAF CROSS-SECTION abundant water
    • CO2 CO2 CO2CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 H2O H2OH2O H2O H2O LEAF CROSS-SECTION water shortage
    • WATERhigh growth reduced cell division flooding reduced cell expansion anoxic conditions C02 starvationlow growth dry wet
    • HOW DOES DAY LENGTH AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: Chris Nixon
    • DAY LENGTHhigh growth flowering dormancy germinationlow growth short long
    • total growth rate growth rate due to temperature G(t) = gE(t) • min[gT, gW] growth rate growth rate due to soil water due to radiationA er Evans et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2006
    • THE LAW OF THE MINIMUM Growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor), not the total amount of resources available
    • Source: Neil Pederson
    • GEOG5839ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS
    • Tree-ring display at elementary school Photograph:Tom Swetnam
    • Dr. Hal Fri sUniversity of Arizona
    • Fri s, Tree Rings and Climate, 1976
    • Source: Fritts et al., Ecology, 1965
    • High Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High Av era ge rin g-w Ar idt bo h ria ld om ina nc e Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High S NG RI N T Low B SE PERCENT A Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA R E O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA R E O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • Source: Fritts et al., Ecology, 1965
    • “ Thus the physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, assimilation, and cambial activity, are largely a function of favorable or unfavorable climatic regimes, and ” hence the trees exhibit a high amount of similar variation in relative year-to-year fluctuations of their ring widths. Fri s et al., 1965 Ecology
    • Source: United States Geological Survey
    • A species may grow and reproduce over acertain range of habitats; that range isdescribed as its ecological amplitude.
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • THE PRINCIPLE OFECOLOGICAL AMPLITUDETrees that grow near the margins or limits of their ecological amplitudeare o en more sensitive to changes in their environment.
    • GEOG8280 XT C L AS SNE