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GEOG3839.20, Paleofloods

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  • 1. Photograph: Paul Kelly
  • 2. MAJOR LOSSES IN 2010 ACCORDING TO LOSS CATEGORY Storms $20,126 Earthquakes $12,943 Floods $6,393 Cold, frost $397 Droughts $10 (in USD m)Source: Swiss Re, Natural catastrophes and man-made disasters in 2010
  • 3. during the 1990s, freshwater flooding affected more than1.4 BILLION PEOPLE
  • 4. Photograph: puuikibeach
  • 5. Photograph: eyebar
  • 6. PAST BEHAVIOR FUTURE RISKS
  • 7. Photograph: skooksie
  • 8. “100-year flood”
  • 9. Paleoflood hydrology uses physical evidence le behindon the landscape to make inferences about past floodsthat were not directly observed or recorded by humans.
  • 10. Photograph: David Snyder Slackwater deposits Fine-grained sediments laid down by floodwaters
  • 11. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St.. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  • 12. scarring microclimatologyinjury “flood rings”
  • 13. FLOOD SCARS
  • 14. Photograph: Mark’s Postcards from Beloit
  • 15. Photograph: NDSU Ag Comm
  • 16. FLOOD SCARSThe timing of the flood can be determined by counting the numberof rings between the scar and the outside ring, and the height ofthe scar represents the minimum elevation of high water.
  • 17. INJURY
  • 18. Floods can damage trees by tilting or partial uprootingor can uproot them completely, causing their death.
  • 19. MICROCLIMATEPhotograph: Alex Drainville
  • 20. Photograph: Alex Drainville
  • 21. Photograph: ouelle e001.com
  • 22. FLOOD RINGS
  • 23. Winnipeg Manitoba
  • 24. WinnipegThe name Winnipeg is a transcription ofthe western Cree word wi-nipe-k meaning"muddy waters"
  • 25. Photograph: Greg Brooks
  • 26. AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  • 27. Greg Brooks, Geological Survey of Canada
  • 28. Grand Forks, North Dakota 1997 flood and fire
  • 29. Photograph: Ma hew Bietz
  • 30. Lake Agassiz
  • 31. How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging the Red River flood hazard?What are the geological controls that govern thecharacter of Red River flooding?
  • 32. Instrumental and historical estimates of major Red River floods
  • 33. Erik Nielsen Manitoba Geological Survey
  • 34. Photograph: Greg Brooks
  • 35. 2008
  • 36. 1875
  • 37. Photo: Erik Nielsen
  • 38. 51Photo: Erik Nielsen
  • 39. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St.. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  • 40. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  • 41. In hydrology, flood observations reported as having occurredabove some threshold are known as censored data sets.
  • 42. Photograph: USGS 1979 Red River flood Drayton, North Dakota
  • 43. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  • 44. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  • 45. St. George et al. (2002), Tree-Ring Research
  • 46. How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging the Red River flood hazard?What are the geological controls that govern thecharacter of Red River flooding?
  • 47. 350 years of Red River floodsSource: St. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  • 48. TREES AS PALEOFLOOD INDICATORSStrengths and limitations
  • 49. Photograph: David Snyder
  • 50. Redrawn from Stahle (1990)
  • 51. Photograph: Steffano A ardi
  • 52. scarring microclimatologyinjury “flood rings”
  • 53. ReadingSt. George (2010), Tree rings as paleoflood andpaleostage indicators. In Stoffel et al., (eds.),Tree Rings and Natural Hazards.
  • 54. ReadingSt. George and Nielsen (2002), Flood ringevidence and its application to paleofloodhydrology of the Red River and AssiniboineRiver in Manitoba. Geographie physique etQuaternaire.
  • 55. PALEOFLOODSPhotograph: Morningstar Photo