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Class 8, Sampling strategies
 

Class 8, Sampling strategies

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    Class 8, Sampling strategies Class 8, Sampling strategies Presentation Transcript

    • KEVIN ANCHUKAITISCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY FRI MAR 4, 2011 BLEGEN 445 3:30 PMA THOUSAND YEARS OFHUMAN HISTORY AND THEASIAN MONSOON FROMTROPICAL TREE RINGS
    • THE PRINCIPLE OFAGGREGATE TREE GROWTH THE PRINCIPLE OF REPLICATION STANDARDIZATION
    • TREE-RING WIDTH DATApith bark
    • S A M P L I N G S T R AT E G I E SPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • THE PRINCIPLE OFECOLOGICAL AMPLITUDEA tree species may grow and reproduce over a certain range ofhabitats; that range is described as its ecological amplitude.Trees that grow near the margins or limits of their ecologicalamplitude are o en sensitive to changes in their environment.
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • Photograph: Phil Camill
    • Average temperatures are remarkably consistent at treeline locations around the worldSource: Körner and Paulsen, Journal of Biogeography, 2004
    • Photograph: Greg Brooks
    • Photograph: a rancid amoeba
    • High Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High Av era ge r ing -w idt Ar h bo ria ld om ina nc e Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High S NG RI N T Low B SE PERCENT A Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA RE O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • ‘Complacent’
    • ‘Sensitive’
    • COMPLACENT SENSITIVE High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA RE O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
    • Complacent SensitiveFri s, 1976
    • THE PRINCIPLE OF SITE SELECTIONDendrochronologists should apply the principles oflimiting factors and ecological amplitude to determinewhich trees are most likely to provide information about aspecific environmental signal.
    • THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • Photograph: Phil Camill
    • ecotone a transitional area where one plant communitychanges into another, usually caused by changes in theenvironment such as changes in elevation or soilcharacteristics.
    • TARGETED vs. RANDOM
    • Photograph: mullica
    • where do we find old trees?
    • OLDLIST h p://www.rmtrr.org/oldlist.htm
    • Eastern OLDLIST h p://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~adk/oldlisteast/
    • Trees can grow anywhere!
    • Intermountain bristlecone pine 4,844 yearsPhotograph: Tom Harlan
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • Methuselah RidgePhotograph: Tom Harlan
    • Bristlecone comparison photos
    • Wind erosion on bristlecone tagPhotograph: Tom Harlan
    • Bristlecone vista Alerce 3,622 yearsPhotograph: Tim Waters
    • distribution map ofFITZROYA CUPRESSOIDES
    • Giant sequoia 3,266 yearsPhotograph: Julie Jordan Sco
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • Photograph: Byron Hetrick
    • Bristlecone vista Coast redwood 2,200 yearsPhotograph:hoppinjonn
    • h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
    • Photograph: Brandi Korte
    • The Seward oak 330 yr?Photograph: Ralph Sievert
    • White pine 1714Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller
    • White cedar 1452Photograph: Danny Margoles
    • Leonardo da Vinci b. 1452 d. 1519
    • IDENTIFYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PONDEROSA PINE TREES AT DIFFERENT LIFE STAGES Live crown Trunk Likely Crown shape Branches Bark ratio shape injuries Old trees fla ened, ‘bonsai’ shape, sparse and open, may be small; o en fire-pruned few but large columnar smooth, small flakes, fire scars, dead tops, broken (>200 yr) lopsided. pale orange or grey branches, lightning scars, rot, burls, exposed roots Young trees pointed top, ‘teardrop’ or ‘Christmas tree’ shape, large many fine branches, dense foliage near tapered large, coarse flakes, deep very few, possible mistletoe or (<150 yr) dense foliage the trunk fissures, dark gray or black lightening scars with dark orangeSource: Huckaby et al., 2003
    • Crown shapefla ened, ‘bonsai’ shape,sparse and open, may belopsided.
    • Branchesfew but large
    • Trunk shapecolumnar
    • youngest IDEALIZED SILHOUETTES OF middle PONDEROSA PINES oldest good sites poor sitesSource: Huckaby et al., 2003
    • Dr. Neil Pederson Lamont-Doherty Earth Observation
    • Pederson, N. 2010. External characteristics ofold trees in the Eastern Deciduous Forest.Natural Areas Journal 30, 396:407.
    • SIXCHARACTERISTICS OF OLD TREES smooth bark low stem taper high stem sinuosity crowns with few, thick, twisting limbs low crown volume low ratio of leaf area to trunk volume
    • Quercus alba <150 yr, with flaky barkPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • Quercus alba >250 yr, with low ridgingPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • Liriodendron tulipifera ca. 80 yrPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • Liriodendron tulipifera ca. 500 yrPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • Quercus muehlenbergii ca. 399 yr, with a low stem taperPhotograph: A. Wiggs
    • Lirodendron tulipifera showing serpentine bole and characteristic crown architecturePhotographs: Neil Pederson
    • Quercus muehlenbergii ca. 348 yr, with a few large branches in its crownPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • Photograph: Diane Main
    • L. tulipifera with broken crown (le ) and a celery top crown (right)Photograph: Neil Pederson
    • “ Size ma ers not. Look at me. Judge me by my size, do you? Hm? Mmmm.” Yoda
    • Q. montana 250 to 350+ yrs, U ertown NJPhotograph: Neil Pederson
    • Quercus montana Quercus montana 428 yr 427 yr Quercus montana 411 yrPhotograph:s Neil Pederson
    • where do we find tree-ring data?
    • INTERNATIONALTREE-RING DATABANK h p://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/treering.html
    • Exercise!Use Google Earth to review the globaldistribution of tree-ring data.