Brief (15-minute) summaries of project topics.
(1) What are the most important features of the modern
climate in your region?
(2) What proxies are available in your region, over the time
interval speciﬁed? How are they related to climate? and
(3) How diﬀerent were past climates from modern
conditions? Why is that important?
S TA B L E I S O T O P E S I N PA L E O C L I M AT O L O GY
Isotopes are elements with the same number of protons
but varying numbers of neutrons.
Stable isotopes are either not radioactive or decay so
slowly that their half-lives cannot be measured.
Stable isotopes have the same chemical properties
but don’t have the same atomic mass.