Summer Forages for Beef Cattle
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Summer Forages for Beef Cattle

Summer Forages for Beef Cattle

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Summer Forages for Beef Cattle Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Science. Service. Solutions.© Beef Cattle Nutrition and Summer Forages Scott Sell – Area Livestock Agent
  • 2. Classes of Summer Forages Perennials Annuals
  • 3. Summer Grazing in SC • Permanent Summer Perennials – Hybrid Bermudas • Tift 85 • Coastal • Russell • Tift 44/Tift 78/Alecia – By gone – poor performers – Bahia • Pensacola – Most common • Tifton 9 • Tift Quik
  • 4. Grass Quality Table 1. Typical fertilizer and lime recommendations, and the approximate forage quality, carrying capacity, and stocker gains that can be expected when recommended varieties of bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and tall fescue are used as the primary pasture species. Fertilizer Recommendations1 Annual Lime Needed Typical Forage Quality2 Range in Forage Quality Carrying Capacity Average Daily Gains - Stocker Cattle N P2O5 K2O — (lbs/acre) — (tons/acre) — (RFQ)— (AU3/acre/yr) (lbs/head/day) Bahiagrass 75-175 40 40 0.3-0.5 85-90 75-110 0.75-1.25 0.7-1.0 Bermudagrass 150-250 30 65 0.3-0.5 90-100 80-140 1.00-1.50 1.5-1.8 1 Assumes medium levels of phosphorus and potassium in the soil test. 2 The forage quality values here are estimated based on NDF and digestibility estimates in the published literature. (RFQ = Relative Forage Quality) 3 AU = Animal Unit. One animal unit is equivalent to 1,000 lbs. 4 Tall fescue is not recommended for pastures in the Coastal Plain. Approximations for animal performance for tall fescue in this table assume the use of a recommended novel-endophyte infected variety.
  • 5. Tifton 9 Vs. Pensacola • 3 Year Side by Side Comparison – Tifton 9 – 47% more Forage – Tifton 9 – 17% more days of grazing – Same inputs Burton; Gates and Hill - 2000
  • 6. Tifton 9 Vs. TifQuik • Tifton 9—This cultivar was developed and released by the University of Georgia and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1989 by Glenn Burton. Tifton 9 is a selection from Pensacola that was found to have superior yields in early spring and late fall. Tifton 9 is estimated to occupy 10% of the bahiagrass acreage in Florida. • TifQuik—This cultivar, recently released by the USDA and the University of Georgia, has fewer hard seeds and results in a more rapid or "quick" stand establishment. In the spring, it grows faster than Tifton 9 or Pensacola because of increased seedling emergence. Newman et al. 2008, University of Florida
  • 7. Tifton 9 And Tift Quik Establishment • Have your soil tested. • Apply 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen plus adequate phosphorous and potassium. • Prepare a firm weed-free seed bed. • Plant seed 1/2 inch deep with a grain drill or grass seeder. • Plant in early spring to give a full summer season for establishment. • Pack the soil after planting with a very heavy roller or the tractor to keep soil moist around the seed or use a Cultipacker – Very Important • Control weeds with mowing or limited grazing to keep them down close to the top bahiagrass leaves. • An application of 2,4-D will control broad leaf weeds – When a minimum of 6 inches tall. Burton; Gates and Hill - 2000
  • 8. Bahia Planting Rates Seeding Rates (lb/acre) Pensacola 20–30 Argentine 20–30 Tifton 9 15–20 UF-Riata 15–20 TifQuik 15-20 Adapted from data from Newman et al. 2008, University of Florida Bahiagrass Seeding Rates
  • 9. Peanut/Cotton/Bahia Rotation Rotation 2003 2004 lbs/acre Bahiagrass-Bahiagrass- Peanut-Cotton 2783 3281 Peanut-Cotton-Cotton 1958 2415 Peanut yield for two crop rotations in FL during 2003 and 2004.
  • 10. Tift 9 or TifQuik? Tift 9 • Less expensive – Approx $80/40 lb bag • More hard seed • Slower establishment • Way to go for pasture-hay when time is not of the essence. TifQuik • More Expensive – Approx $185/40 lb bag • Less hard seed • Faster establishment • Well Suited to Runner Peanut/Bahia Hay rotation • Plant late summer with perennial peanuts for excellent pasture •Same Lineage •TifQuik is a Tift 9 Cultivar •Many of the Same charateristics
  • 11. Adaptation Grown in all areas except in mountains. Varieties differ in cold hardiness. Best adapted on sandy soils but will do well on clay soils. Hybrids are higher yielding, deeper rooted, and more drought tolerant than common bermudagrass. Tolerant of close grazing. Not tolerant of poor drainage. Establishment Seeded types - 5 to 10 lb/A in spring. Hybrids - March-April with sprigs at 10 bu/A Varieties Sprigged: Tifton 85, Russell. Seeded types/blends: Cheyenne II, Ranchero Frio, Sungrazer Hybrid Bermuda Grasses
  • 12. Varieties by Area Table 1b. Summary of the characteristics of the primary vegetatively propagated (sprigged) bermudagrasses in Georgia. Recommended for: Variety Mountain Upper Piedmont Midlands Coastal Plain Alicia (Alecia) X X X X Coastal X YES YES YES Coastcross II ND* YES YES YES Russell YES YES YES YES Tifton 44 X X X X Tifton 78 X X X X Tifton 85 YES YES YES * Insufficient data exists to accurately estimate these parameters. Coastcross II remains a relatively new variety and has not yet been evaluated as rigorously as other hybrids. Hancock Et. Al., UGA, 2012
  • 13. Bermuda Grass Performance Table 1a. Summary of the characteristics of the primary vegetatively propagated (sprigged) bermudagrasses in Georgia. Variety Overall Rating Yield* Digestibility** Winter Hardiness Persistence Leaf Spot Resistance Alicia (Alecia) tt3 100 P G P P Coastal ttt3 100 F G G E Coastcross II tttt3 135 E G ND*** ND Russell tttt3 130 G E E G Tifton 44 tttt 90 G E G E Tifton 78 ttt 120 E F F E Tifton 85 ttttt 135 E F E E Ratings: E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, P = Poor. * Yields are expressed as a percent of yields from Coastal. ** Based on in vitro dry matter digestibility. *** Insufficient data exists to accurately estimate these parameters. Coastcross II remains a relatively new variety and has not yet been evaluated as rigorously as other hybrids. Hancock Et. Al., UGA 2012
  • 14. Yield Comparison – Vs. Coastal 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Alicia (Alecia) Coastal Coastcross II Russell Tifton 44 Tifton 78 Tifton 85 Yield/Ac Based on % of Coastal Yield Hancock Et. Al., UGA, 2012
  • 15. Seeded Bermudas Table 3a. Summary of the characteristics of the primary seeded bermudagrasses in Georgia. Variety Overall Rating Yield* Winter Hardiness Persistence Giant (NK37) 3 55 P P Cheyenne** ttt 60 G E CD90160 ttt 60 G E KF-194 ttt 60 G E Wrangler t3 55 E F Common t 50 G G Ratings: E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, P = Poor. *Yields are expressed as a percent of yields from Coastal. **The original Cheyenne is no longer being sold. Cheyenne II, a variant of Cheyenne (selected for higher seed yield), is currently being marketed. Cheyenne II is expected to have characteristics similar to Cheyenne.
  • 16. Yield Comparison – Vs. Coastal Seeded Vs. Sprigged 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Yield/Ac Based on % of Coastal Yield Sprigged Varieties Seeded Varieties Hancock Et. Al., UGA, 2012
  • 17. Establishment • Hybrid bermudagrasses: – (a) dormant rhizomes - December to early March – (b) Rhizomes with green tops – spring (after last freeze) to early August – (c) Tops/Green stems - Early June to August
  • 18. Establishment Cont. • 10 Bu/Acre – Approx • Weed Control – Chemical – • Prowl H2O • Pastora – Grazing/Mowing
  • 19. 2nd year after discing 2 Months After Planting
  • 20. Helminth. Screven Co., GA - August 2012 COMMON COASTAL COASTAL
  • 21. Bermuda Grass Stem Maggot
  • 22. Maggot The larva (maggot) is about 1/8” (3 mm) long.
  • 23. Damage Figure 2. Only the top parts of the bermudagrass shoots are damaged, causing the frosted appearance
  • 24. Damage
  • 25. Bermuda Grass Stem Maggot • Atherigona reversura • Native to Japan, Indonesia, India, and Hawaii • First found in GA – 2010 - Pierce, Jeff Davis, and Tift counties in Georgia • First record of this species in North America • Found in SC last two growing seasons • Hay fields most impacted • Not an issue in grazing as cattle keep grass growth in check and consume maggot • Broader leaved varieties not as affected
  • 26. Control and Management • Cut damaged crop • Apply foliar labeled pyrethroid • Apply once at 1-2 days after cutting • Apply second application 5-7 days after first • Later in the season pressure/stress increases William G. Hudson, University of Georgia Dennis Hancock, University of Georgia Kathy Flanders, Auburn University Henry Dorough, Alabama Cooperative Extension System March 2013
  • 27. Pyrethroids for Hay in SC • Baythroid XL – 1.6-2.8 fl oz/ac • Mustang Max (EC) – 2.8-4.0 oz/ac • Karate – 2.6-3.8 oz/ac As always follow label precautions and instructions
  • 28. Summer Grazing in SC • Summer Annuals – Millet – Sorghum-Sudan Type – Cow Peas – Forage Soybeans
  • 29. Millets/Soghums/Sudans – Planting Times and Rates Planting dates and seeding rates for selected warm season annual grasses. Species Planting Dates* Seeding Rate Drilled Broadcast —— lbs. of PLS/acre —— Pearl Millet UP May 1 – July 1 10–15 25–30 MDLS April 15 – July 15 CP April 1 – August 1 Sorghum x Sudan Hybrids UP May 1 – July 15 15–20 20–25 MDLS April 15 – August 1 CP April 1 – August 15 Sudangrass UP May 1 – July 1 20–25 30–40 MDLS April 15 – July 15 CP April 1 – August 1 Forage Sorghum UP April 25 – May 15 15–20 20–25 MDLS April 15 – May 15 CP April 15 – June 1 * UP Upstate; MDLS = MidLands; CP = Coastal Plain Region. Hancock, UGA
  • 30. Variety Trials - Tifton Tifleaf 3
  • 31. Forage Sorghum Tif-Leaf 3 Sorghum-Sudan
  • 32. Cow Peas for Forage
  • 33. • Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. ssp.) unguiculata • Once widely grown in North Florida as a hay or green manure • Well adapted to sandy, and low fertility soils. • It is now used in mixtures with pearl millet or sorghum-sudangrass for late summer/early fall grazing and for wildlife feed plots.
  • 34. • Establishment: • Very tolerant to drought, shade, and low fertility and acid soils • Cowpea can be broadcast at rates of 100 to 120 lb/ac between April 1 and July 31 • cover with light disking or drilled at rates of 30 to 40 lbs/ac to a depth of 1- 1.5 inches. • Fertilization: • N is not required. • At least 27 lb P/acre and 40 lb K/acre. • Grazing/Hay Management: • Yields ranging from 2 to 3.5 tons/ac. • Cowpea can also be used for the production of high quality hay or silage, when mixed with crops such as corn or sorghum, or it can be used for rotational grazing. • Forage Quality: • Protein (20 to 25%) • Varieties/Cultivars: • Mississippi Pinkeye Purple • Colossus • Freezegreen • Alabama Giant Blackeye.
  • 35. Cowpeas and Millet at EFBT-EREC • Tiftleaf 3 @ 20 lbs./Ac • Cowpeas @ 15 lbs/Ac • Millet in small box • Cowpeas in large box • Two Plantings/Cross Planting • No inocculant really needed
  • 36. Quantifiable Measures of Forage Quality • MCAL • KCAL • NEL • NEG • NEM • TDN – Total Digestible Nutrients – Energy/CP • CP – Crude Protein Measures of Energy Lactation/Gain/Maintenance
  • 37. 15 14 18 12 20 28 60 59 68 58 62 69 CBG FESCUE RYEGRASS SORGHUM LEGUME /GRASS MIX CLOVER 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 TDN and CP Content of Typical CSRA Forages Grazing Pastures CP% TDN%
  • 38. Animal Performance Plant-Animal Interaction Potential Forage Feeding Value Potential Nutritive Value Anti-Quality Factors Potential Intake Potential Animal Performance Genetic Factors Environmental Factors Physiological Factors Factors Affecting Forage Quality • Genotype • Plant Part • Maturity • Climate • Soils • Pests • Genotype • Body Size • Sex • Breed• Age • BCS • Health • Climate • Pests • Herd Effects
  • 39. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Brood Cows Drovers – 2/6/2013
  • 40. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Dry Lactating Weaned LbsDailyDMI Beef Cattle DMI per Day by Class DMI
  • 41. Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Lactating Lactating Lactating Lactating Lactating Lactating Weaned Weaned Weaned Weaned Weaned Weaned 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 CBG FESCUE RYEGRASS MILLET LEGUME /GRASS MIX CLOVER %CP Beef Cattle CP Req by Forage Type CP% Dry Lactating Weaned
  • 42. Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Lactating Lactating Lactating Lactating Lactating Lactating Weaned Weaned Weaned Weaned Weaned Weaned 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 CBG FESCUE RYEGRASS MILLET LEGUME /GRASS MIX CLOVER %TDN Beef Cattle TDN Req by Forage Type TDN% Dry Lactating Weaned
  • 43. Credits • UGA Extension – Dr. Dennis Hancock • UGA Crop & Soil Sciences • Mississippi State Extension • University of Florida Extension • Clemson Extension • Alabama Extension
  • 44. Contact info • Scott Sell – Area Livestock Agent – Edisto EREC – Cell 912-682-9590 – Email: gsell@clemson.edu