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•Helpful for athletes to learn how to correct errors quickly.•Speeds up progress.•Motivate, reinforce or discourage, accelerate improvement.
• Intrinsic mechanisms for feedback.• Sense movements, see results and then make conclusions.• Extrinsic mechanisms are added by coaches.• Verbal feedback for encouragement, explanation, education, and exploration.• Coaches should have some pedagogical understanding.
• Paul E. Robinson• Intrinsic feedback comes from sensory information,• Kinaesthetic, tactile, visual, and auditory.• Proprioception.• Feeling the rush of air when running.• Exteroception.• Extrinsic feedback comes from external sources.
• Frequency of giving feedback.• Bandwidth feedback.• Constructive feedback is beneficial whether it is positive or negative.• Negative comments should be framed to sound positive.• “That is poor” to “Try this way”.
• Craig A. Wrisberg• Descriptive and Prescriptive Feedback.• Descriptive is the coach saying what he saw.• Beneficial for experienced athletes.• Prescriptive is the coach telling an athlete what they need to do next, based on what they saw.• Prescriptive feedback requires more knowledge and observation from a coach.
•If athletes are attending to intrinsic feedback, they do not need extrinsic feedback.•When in doubt, be quiet.•Feedback is more beneficial when athletes ask for it.•Can improve with very limited extrinsic feedback.•Only ask about 10% of the time.
• Frank S. Pyke• Positive reinforcement is very effective.• Frame feedback as questions.• Athletes can construct their own feedback.• Avoid negative or corrective feedback in front of others.
• Frank W. Dick• Knowledge of Results (KR)• Athletes can compare actual performance with intended goal.• KR helps with motivation.• Goals must be established for KR to work.
• Lynn Kidman and Stephanie Hanrahan• Information and Motivational Feedback• Informational provides athletes with verbal or non-verbal communication about how a movement was performed.• Motivational Feedback provides athletes with information that encourages or discourages the attempt of a skill or technique.
• The Query Theory• Encourage improvement through athlete self-awareness.• Give them tools to solve problems by themselves, rather than providing answers.• If an athlete does not understand the movement, they cannot change it.• Feedback must be given immediately.• After a short time, an athlete may have forgotten details of their performance.
•Positive, Negative, or Neutral Feedback.•Positive = Praise or encouragement.•Negative = Unhelpful or demeaning.•Neutral = Prompt with no connotations: “Remember to keep your head down.”•Negative is used too often.
•Congruent and Incongruent Feedback.•Congruent is specific to the skill that is being practiced.•Incongruent is feedback on aspects of a skill that are not the focus of the drill.•For example, giving feedback on passing when practicing zone defence.
• Tania Cassidy, Robyn Jones and Paul Potrac• Lack of research into non-verbal forms of feedback.• Over 70% of communication is non-verbal.• Athlete’s perception of a verbal message depends on the accompanying facial expression.• Positive feedback given with a negative expression will be taken as negative feedback.
• Allen and Howe• Relationship between ability and feedback with perceived competence and satisfaction.• Higher ability and frequent praise and information after a good performance, and less frequent encouragement and corrective information after mistakes were related to higher perceptions of competence.• Black and Weiss found the opposite in their study.• Allen and Howe offered that adolescent females are more “sensitive to corrective information from coaches than previously recognised” (1998).• Highlights the complexity of verbal feedback.
•P.D Turman 2003•Importance of positive and equal feedback in a team.•Increases team cohesion and performance.
• Wulf, McConnel, Gartner and Schwarz• Feedback with an External Focus.• Refers to the movement effects, rather than the body movements of a skill.• Internal Focus refers to the body movements of an action.• Research clearly showed feedback with an External Focus was more beneficial to athletes learning a complex motor skill.
•Amorose and Weiss•Feedback can illustrate the ability of an athlete to the athlete.•Positive feedback is helpful to any athlete of any age and gender.•Majority of the literature surrounding feedback reflects this.
• Feedback comes in a range of forms.• Gilbert (2002) says on 7% of literature has focused on feedback.• Solomon et al. (1998) claim that the research has been ‘extensive’.• Discussion on feedback has largely focused on it as an intervention strategy for coaches.
• Feedback is integral.• Any athlete, any sport.• Literature supports positive and constructive feedback.• Intrinsic feedback is most helpful.• Many different techniques, strategies, and opinions.• Coaches must understand their subjects and how best to serve them.
ReferencesAllen, J. B., & Howe, B. L. (1998). Player Ability, Coach Feedback, And Female Adolescent Athletes Perceived Competence and Satisfaction. Journal of Sport and ExercisePsychology, 20, 280-299. Retrieved April 5, 2013, from https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/8939/1/AllenandHowe_JSEP_1998.pdfAmorose, A. J., & Weiss, M. R. (1998). Coaching Feedback as a Source of Information About Perceptions of Ability: A Developmental Examination. Journal of Sport and ExercisePsychology, 20. Retrieved April 3, 2013, fromhttp://content.ebscohost.com/pdf25_26/pdf/1998/SEG/01Dec98/1376105.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=1376105&S=R&D=s3h&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESeprY4v%2BbwOLCmr0ueqK5Ss6m4TbeWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGptFC3qLNMuePfgeyx44Dt6fIACassidy, T., Jones, R. L., & Potrac, P. (2004). Understanding sports coaching the social, cultural and pedagogical foundations of coaching practice. New York: Routledge.Dick, F. W. (2007). Sports training principles (5th ed.). London: A & C Black.Gilbert, W. (2002) ‘An annotated bibliography and analysis of coaching science’, unpublished report sponsored by the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health,Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.Kidman, L., & Hanrahan, S. J. (2004). The coaching process: a practical guide to improving your effectiveness (2nd ed.). Palmerston North, N.Z.: Dunmore Press.Pyke, F. S. (2001). Better coaching: advanced coachs manual (2nd ed.). Australia: Australian Sports Commission :.Robinson, P. E. (2010). Foundations of sports coaching. London: Routledge.Solomon, G., Golden, A., Ciapponi, T. Matine, A. (1998) ‘Coach expectations and differential feedback: perceptual flexibility revisited’, Journal of Sport Behaviour, 21(3): 298-310Turman, P. D. (2003). Coaches and cohesion: the impact of coaching techniques on team cohesion in the small group sport setting.. Journal Of Sport Behaviour, 26. RetrievedApril 6, 2013, fromhttp://zh9bf5sp6t.scholar.serialssolutions.com/?sid=google&auinit=PD&aulast=Turman&atitle=Coaches+and+cohesion:+The+impact+of+coaching+techniques+on+team+cohesion+in+the+small+group+sport+setting&title=Journal+of+sport+behavior&volume=26&issue=1&date=2003Wood, D. K. (2009). Effective Coaching Feedback to Enhance Sport Learning. Sports Training Adviser. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.sports-training-adviser.com/coaching-feedback.htmlWrisberg, C. A. (2007). Sport skill instruction for coaches. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Wulf, G., Gartner, M., McConnel, N., & Schwarz, A. (2002). Enhancing the Learning of Sport Skills Through External-Focus Feedback. journal of motor behaviour, 34. RetrievedApril 4, 1992, from http://content.ebscohost.com/pdf13_15/pdf/2002/MBH/01Jun02/6837247.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=SPHS-823962&S=R&D=s3h&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESeprY4v%2BbwOLCmr0ueqK9Srqe4TK6WxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGptFC3qLNMuePfgeyx44Dt6fIA