French Revolution

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This is the French Revolution lecture for Nilsen's World History class.

This is the French Revolution lecture for Nilsen's World History class.

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  • Pick a King – he’s the cause of the national debt
  • Pick a rep for each estate Ask the King which one he’s going to tax Graphs are on p. 330 of textbook
  • Ask each estate how they would vote Ask the King what he wants to do
  • Set up budget scenario and mob reaction
  • Get mob reactions for both
  • Leopold II of Austria was Marie Antoinette’s brother Marie Antoinette executed a couple few months later
  • Right vs. Left is same as today! Declaration has no effect, just like Declaration of Independence Constitutional Monarchy – separation of powers!
  • Concept will be useful for trial
  • Ask mob if anything’s changed

Transcript

  • 1. The French Revolution
  • 2. France in 1789
    • Crippling National Debt
    • Extensive unemployment
    • Widespread malnutrition and starvation
  • 3.  
  • 4. Three Estates
    • First Estate
      • Clergy
      • .5% of population, 10% of land
    • Second Estate
      • Nobility
      • 1.5% of population, 25% of land
    • Third Estate
      • Commoners
      • 98% of population, 65% of land
  • 5. Estates General
    • King convenes to raise taxes
    • Needed money because of Seven Years’ War and American Revolution
  • 6. How should they vote? Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate 1 1 1
  • 7. How should they vote? Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate 300 300 648
  • 8. Royal Response
    • King locks out Estates General
    • Meet anyway as the National Assembly – Third Estate only
    • Tennis Court Oath – vow to meet until they have a constitution
  • 9. Bastille
    • King fires financial advisor
    • Parisian crowds riot, storm Bastille prison
    • July 14, 1789 – French Independence Day
  • 10. National Assembly Exercises Power
    • August 1789 – Assembly abolishes feudalism
    • December 1789 – Assembly takes over property of church
      • Abolished church’s ability to tax
      • Confiscated church property
      • Made clergy state employees
      • Replaced church with the “Cult of Reason”
  • 11. More National Assembly Actions
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    • Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité
      • Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (Brotherhood)
    • Eventually establish a constitutional monarchy
  • 12. War
    • Austria and Prussia declare war on France
      • Defeated by nationalist French army
    • Led to execution of Louis XVI
    • Monarchy abolished, Republic established
  • 13. Dissent in the National Assembly
    • Split between conservatives and radical liberals
    Jacobins Montagnards (“The Mountain”) Girondists Monarchíen (Royalists) 1790s: The Plain (swing votes)
  • 14. Factions Turn on Each Other
    • Conservatives – Girondins
    • Radicals – Jacobins
    • Led by Maximilien Robespierre
  • 15. Jean-Paul Marat
    • Jacobin who used his newspapers to influence public opinion
    • Whipped up public opinion against Girondins
    • Killed in his bathtub by Girondin assassin
  • 16. Reign of Terror
    • Robespierre seizes opportunity
    • Cracks down on enemies
      • Girondins
      • Anyone who disagreed with him
    • Over 18,000 executed from 1793 to 1794
    • Eventually runs out of political support
      • Loses power
      • Is executed himself in 1794
  • 17. After the Reign of Terror
    • Girondins take over and take revenge
    • Write a new constitution, but nothing changes
    • Very little control from the government
    • Much social unrest and riots
      • Military called upon to put them down
      • Napoleon very skilled at doing so
    • Napoleon takes over in 1799 coup d’etat
  • 18. Big Picture Takeaway
    • French Revolution was a political failure
      • Traded a King for an Emperor
    • Elimination of Feudalism and church control had long-term effects
    • Revolutionary ideals had far-reaching appeal
    • Unified France
    • Set the stage for nationalism