The Census for Local Studies Research


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Peter Reid, Robert Gordon University,

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The Census for Local Studies Research

  1. 1. The Census for Local Studies Research Professor Peter Reid
  2. 2. <ul><li>With a little help from Cecil Frances Alexander </li></ul>
  3. 3. Family history
  4. 6. <ul><li>Address </li></ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to head </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Where born </li></ul><ul><li>Lunatic, imbecile or idiot </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>All things bright and beautiful, All creatures great and small </li></ul>Victorian Bethnal Green Young and Wilmott. (1957) Family and Kinship in East London
  6. 9. Migration He made their glowing colours, He made their tiny wings. <ul><li>Census data on place of birth </li></ul><ul><li>Only records location on the night of the census, not the duration of residence in a particular location </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data with little context, other sources (e.g. narrative are more useful but less suitable for generalisations) </li></ul>
  7. 11. Little Ireland Between 1841 - 1851 the Irish population of Scotland increased by 90%. 1851 Coatbridge - 35.8% Irish Edinburgh – 6.5% Irish Dumfries-shire – 5.9% Glasgow had 29% of all Irish migrants settled in Scotland
  8. 12. Segregation or Integration? <ul><li>“ the census only indicates the place of birth and the place of residence on census night.' It does not record where else a person had lived since their birth, how long they had spent at their current address, or indeed how long they stayed there before moving elsewhere”. </li></ul><ul><li>HIGGS, E. Making senses of the census (1989) </li></ul>
  9. 13. Migration <ul><li>Charles Malcolm </li></ul><ul><li>Born Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalized British Subject 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Malcolm Carlstrom, born Landkrona, 1854, son of Carl Johan Carlstrom and Benedicta Elisabeth Hasselgren </li></ul>
  10. 14. Urbanisation <ul><li>In 1801 there was only London had a population of more than 100,000. </li></ul><ul><li>A century later 33 cities had over 100,000 residents. </li></ul><ul><li>The hidden migration </li></ul>
  11. 15. Urbanisation
  12. 16. Gender <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholar or nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom fully recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Widow’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as an occupation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Occupations: The rich man in castle, the poor man at his gate <ul><li>1851 census summary tables grouped occupations (related to manufacturing) </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of occupations within communities enables classification of communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic and industrial structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical landscape and environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Tillott’s Classifcation <ul><li>Thirteen categories, divided into: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture and fisheries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mining and manufacture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>law, banking, education, profession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but also servants </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Tillott's Consolidated Classes Tillott's classification scheme has been widely used, and suits most   Consolidated Classes Primary Groups I Upper class Groups 5a, 7a, 10a, 10b II Intermediate - non-agricultural Groups 7b, 10c, 13 III Intermediate - agricultural Group 1 IV Skilled workers and similar Groups 2a, 3, 4, 5b, 6, 8, 9a V Semi-skilled workers Groups 2b, 11 VI Domestic servants, semi-skilled Group 9b VII Labourers and unskilled workers Groups 9c, 12 Source: Dennis Mills and Kevin Schürer eds., Local Communities in the Victorian Census Enumerators' Books , Oxford: Leopard's Head Press, 1996, p. 144
  16. 20. Social status: He made them, high or lowly, And ordered their estate. <ul><li>The class structure </li></ul><ul><li>No women working </li></ul><ul><ul><li>except servants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private means </li></ul>
  17. 22. Cultural homogeneity (or hegemony)
  18. 23. Cultural homogeneity (or hegemony) <ul><li>Homogeneity of societies at all levels, particular in farming or fishing communities </li></ul>
  19. 24. The Census He gave us eyes to see them, And lips that we might tell