Outline A Very Short Drama, work as a tailor to Introducing the Moive -- Being John Malkovich Prevailing Questions Personal Identity The Meaning of life Discuss and apply the theory of personal identity Physical Continuity theory Psychological Continuity theory The Same-Soul theory Evaluation
Personal identity X Web of belief Web of belief I Am ‘I’ (ME)<-core of the web of belief Lost of personal identity->我是誰?->the breakage of the core of the web of belief?
Something we Must Know It would be useful to study personal identity if adapt the following approaches: Reductionism Non-Reductionism Physical/bodily Non-physical
Something we Must Know Reductionism 1. The facts of personal identity simply consist in the holding of certain more particular facts about brains, bodies, and series of interrelated physical and mental events.2. These facts can be described in an impersonal way (客觀討論.).
Something we Must Know Reductionism Physical Reductionism The Body Majority View The Brain View/Physical Criterion
Something we Must Know Reductionism 2. Psychological Reductionism - The Psychological Criterion Psychologies= memory, beliefs/desires/goals, intentions fulfilled in action, and general character resemblance. The Narrow Version: continuity involves the normal cause. a. involves continuity of brain; b. cannot involve radical/unwanted changes caused by external forces. The Wide Version: continuity involves any cause. Psychological Connectedness = the degree of holding of direct psychological connections. Psychological Continuity = the degree of overlapping chains of strong psychological connectedness. Relation R
Something we Must Know Non/Anti-Reductionism Separately Existing Entities 非物論: Cartesian Ego(Descartes' Dualism ): persons are essentially purely mental substances 唯心反物(independent of physical substances). The Further Fact : does not involve persons as separately existing entities.
Body Theory Material constitution Ship of theseus A=b;b=c;a=c?
Physical continuity theory Definition: You are the same person you were at birth if your body has existed continuously from then until now.今天X 與過去某時刻的Y 是同一個人，若且唯若（if and only if）Y 的身體持續存在，且現在是X 的身體 Parfit: 認同式的化約主義（Identifying Reductionism) Physical attributes: DNA is the only contender(身體器官、血液、甚至死皮；因內有DNA) Criticism:Identical twins have the same DNA, but have different identities.(孖生不等於一樣) “I will continue to have this DNA until my death.”
Physical continuity theory Being John Malkovich People entering Malkovich’ consciousness, physically and spatiotemporally disappearing, and then being dumped on the New Jerset Turnpike. 男主角進入Malkovich意識時，自己的body physical continuity在時空上暫時消失、不存在。
Brain theory X is the same person as Y if and only if X and Y are psychologically continuous and their psychologies are caused by and realized by the same brain. 決定 Identity 的標準= 大腦持續存在 To ensure the identity of oneself, the only way is having a brain. 身體有identity 的部分只有腦
Question Time 一個人的腦被換掉，還會是自己嗎? 不會再是自己=弱的類比論證?往後討論
High level of psychological propertiese.g(personality人格, value system價值系統, long term desire慾望)
Sleep?The Stream of conscious is disconnected(意識流中斷)
Memory: remember the perception last yearUsed as transitive 過渡 link and identifies me as identical to that person who was born many years ago(跟他人身份分辨的最終標準)
Three theory need not be taken in isolation. A hybrid theory(三個理論可同時使用) Compare with physical continuity theory: persist after death. (死亡後的商議)
Psychological characteristics Attributes cannot be seen directly, must be interfered by looking at someone's behavior(一個人的特點態度,必要由行為觀察) First visit to the portal, lacked control Clearly aware of distinction between himself and Malkovich “wearing a really expensive suit” Evidence: Phone call from Dr. Lester, force him to leave or Maxim will be killed? Malkovich: What on earth do you mean? I am John Malkovich
Long-Standing psychological characteristics: Personality, disposition 性情, worldview 世界觀 Identify individuals over time Craig continues to exist, even after he enters the passageway. The original Malkovich ceases to exist is suppressed when Craig gets control over the body(Malkovich 原本心理特徵受抑壓)
Stream of conscious Ties personal identity to the overlapping thoughts that come and go through consciousness.(不同的意識組成意識流) Many overlapping thoughts and sensations that come on.(意識不斷出現) No single sensation last for very long, but the stream is continuous.(沒有意識是長期性的) Break of continuity of stream-> Sleep?
Memory Ultimate indicator of identity AB, A=B AB+C, A=B=C Craig remains Craig when he enters the portal, because he has memories of being Craig, not memories of being Malkovich
Craig's memory Broke into two isolation sets. Memories had over the past several months as John Malkovich All memories of events before that as Craig. There are no memory links between Craig in the portal and John Malkovich before Craig entered the portal.
Craig continues to exist after entering the portal, but never succeeds in being John Malkovich A previous perception must have occurred(所感知的為真實出現過) previous perception must be casually responsible for the current memory(事實感知跟現在的記憶互相對應) The current memory must accurately represent the previous perception.(可以準確代表出現過的事實感知 E.g. Napoleon at the War of Waterloo(滑鐵爐戰役)matter of fact
The Same Soul theory - Origin 笛卡兒（René Descartes） 《第一哲學沈思錄》（Meditations on first philosophy）: 人們進行懷疑等思考活動時，會自然而然把自我（心靈） 與物質(身體)區別開來證明自我的存在。 「我思故我在」（Cogito, ergo sum）:=形上學的基礎心物二元論（mind-body dualism）之爭。 〈第二沈思〉:笛卡兒：「我思維多少時間，我就存在多 少時間。我若停止思維，我便停止存在。」
The Same Soul theory - Origin 笛卡兒（René Descartes） 〈第六沈思〉：「這個我—即『靈魂』，藉著它我才能成為我，完全不同於肉體，並且即使肉體不存在了，它也不會因此消失。」 笛卡兒: 自我=實體（substance），一個思想實體、精神實體，不依賴肉體而存在。