So what gives South Carolina an advantage over other states when it comes to hydrogen and fuel cell research and development? South Carolina’s 50-year history of hydrogen research comes from the combined work of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the University of South Carolina (USC). SRNL, through the Department of Energy, has been researching hydrogen for more than 50 years. USC has had hydrogen and fuel cell research on their agenda since the 1980’s when they began recruiting a team of nationally recognized researchers in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. In addition to the Harvard study , two other reports were crucial in identifying South Carolina’s strengths in regard to hydrogen and fuel cell activities: The South Carolina Hydrogen Economy: Capitalizing on the State’s R&D Assets – July 2005 South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Economy Strategy Report – September 2005 South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Alliance members represent a broad slice of stakeholders each involved with hydrogen initiatives. Members include: The University of South Carolina Clemson University South Carolina State University The Center for Hydrogen Research The Savannah River National Laboratory The South Carolina Department of Commerce The South Carolina Energy Office EngenuitySC The South Carolina Research Authority
Now that we understand how the technology is used, I would like to tell you about a number of reasons that make SC a leader in the coming hydrogen and fuel cell economy. Governmental support for hydrogen is shown across every aspect of SC’s government: from national representative to local communities. SC’s research strengths cover a broad spectrum of hydrogen aspects from cradle to the grave. In other words, SC’s existing organizations are heavily involved in researching hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, fuel cell use, automotive integration of hydrogen and fuel cells, and related transportation issues. This makes SC a prime location for any company looking to invest in hydrogen and fuel cell technology in any regard. Different regional groups in SC are demonstrating hydrogen and fuel cell use in transportation, stationary and portable uses, showing a wide range of hydrogen markets . SC is gaining prominence in the hydrogen and fuel cell industry because of our expertise in manufacturing . Reports in recent years have pointed to a lack of manufacturing expertise in the US but SC remains strong in this area. Finally, as a state, the primary players in SC’s hydrogen and fuel cell community are coordinating and collaborating through the SC Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Alliance. SCHFCA Mission statement: The South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Alliance is a public-private collaboration for cooperative and coordinated utilization of resources in the state used to advance the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.
SC may have the strongest national leadership of any state with Rep. Inglis and Sen. Graham leading the House and Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucuses. They identified national needs for solutions to challenges such as climate change and energy security and saw an opportunity for the Palmetto State to contribute to those solutions and prosper in the process. State Support: State Endowed Chairs Program (2001) proposes $30 million per year to support research and at least five chairs are focused on fuel cell research. The Research Campus Bond Act of 2004 has committed $440 million to date to support higher education research. Hydrogen Infrastructure Development Act: S.243; passed June 2007 Proposes $15 million over three years to companies that enable growth of hydrogen and fuel cells in SC Proposes tax credits and favorable state incentives to partner with SC’s existing organizations Funding was cut in 2007 because of a budgetary shortfall, but 12 initial proposals leveraged $18.4 million against $9.6 million from state of SC
As I have already discussed, South Carolina has been involved with hydrogen and fuel cell research for more than 50 years. Our state’s research capabilities also address every step of the process of hydrogen and fuel cell research—from production and storage of hydrogen to eventual integration in automobiles and other applications. Hydrogen Production and Storage: SRNL and CHR have partnered on numerous projects to advance research in hydrogen production and storage. The Center for Hydrogen Research recently unveiled SC’s first hydrogen car, a Chevrolet Silverado. Fuel Cell Research: The University of South Carolina has been nationally recognized by the National Hydrogen Association for its outstanding fuel cell work. Automotive Integration: Clemson University’s International Center for Automotive Research is a quickly-growing research campus with the goal of becoming the world’s premier center for motorsports research. Transportation: After completion, the $26 million James E. Clyburn University Transportation Center will address key focus areas including the creation of a comprehensive hydrogen research capacity through collaborations in storage, production, fuel cells and environmental studies.
While states like California are primarily focused on automotive applications for hydrogen and fuel cells, South Carolina is dedicated to growing unique near-term markets for the technology that can create an immediate impact for our state and citizens, while also creating demand for a hydrogen infrastructure. The Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge, an SCHFCA member, has been instrumental in introducing hydrogen applications to the Midlands and provided $50,000 in funding to support the development of a fuel cell powered Segway . Developed by two USC professors, the fuel cell Segway is expected to increase the amount of time that a typical Segway can be used by 20-90%.
Columbia and the Midlands area are quickly becoming one of the premier areas for hydrogen and fuel cell deployment in South Carolina. In 2007, the City of Columbia announced the creation of the Columbia Fuel Cell District with the goal of creating an urban area for mass deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Other awards from the Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge include: Backup power system at Benedict College A USC Citizen’s School for hydrogen technology A hands-on exhibit at EdVenture Children’s Museum Hydrogen forklift demonstrations And more The Columbia Metropolitan Convention Center will also host the 2009 National Hydrogen Association’s annual conference. The conference is the US’s largest hydrogen conference The conference will bring together the world’s leading hydrogen and fuel cell companies The conference is anticipated to create an economic impact of more than $1 million when it brings more than 1,500 attendees to the Midlands
Having been home to the Savannah River National Laboratory for decades, the Aiken region is also on of the premier nodes of activity for hydrogen and fuel cells in South Carolina. Community Partnerships: The Center for Hydrogen Research, through the Aiken Economic Development Partnership, has built a close bond with the Aiken community. Aiken County fully funded the 60,000 sq. ft. Center for Hydrogen Research and its present $1.7 million expansion. Hydrogen Silverado: The 2007 Chevy Silverado has been modified with an internal combustion engine that runs on gaseous hydrogen. Approximate range on a tank of hydrogen is 200 miles. The truck gets better mileage than a conventional gasoline Silverado—the equivalent of 20 miles per gallon instead of 17 miles per gallon. Bridgestone: A hydrogen fueling station has been installed adjacent to the plant to fuel the forklifts. Bridgestone is already using hydrogen fuel cells to run industrial vehicles at other plants. Bridgestone is working with Plug Power to develop additional fuel cell prototypes.
I have already discussed many of South Carolina’s extensive hydrogen and fuel cell research capabilities, but our state’s existing manufacturing capabilities will also play an integral part in how hydrogen and fuel cells are commercialized. South Carolina is ranked 13 th in the number of manufacturing jobs in the US. South Carolina ranks 2 nd in the percent of manufacturing-related export employment in the US. South Carolina is home to more than 16 Technical Colleges and numerous workforce training programs, some of which are already deploying fuel cell programs. Midlands Technical College and Aiken Technical College have both incorporated fuel cell training programs into their curricula. The South Carolina Department of Commerce, a founding member of the SCHFCA, has also been extensively involved in marketing our state’s hydrogen and fuel cell assets and manufacturing capabilities. Mike Nelson, Senior Technology Advisor for the SC Department of Commerce, continues to promote hydrogen and fuel cell initiatives outside of our state to recruit private industry.
Economic growth follows or is a product of an increased energy use per person. Note that as the economy grows (moving to the right on the bottom scale), the energy use per person also grows. (?) What does a fairly flat line on this chart mean? (See the US line near top.) (A: Energy usage per person is not increasing much as the economy grows.) (?) What does a steep line (Australia) mean? (A: Energy usage per person is increasing rapidly as the economy grows.) (?) Why does the US have a fairly flat line? (A: The more mature energy consumers with well-established infrastructures and economies (like the US) are generally moving away from energy-intensive manufacturing industries toward services, and they will see lower increases in energy demand.) World-wide energy consumption is projected to continue increasing. Fossil fuels continue to supply much of this energy and oil remains the dominant energy source. However, nations such as China, India, and regions such as Central and South America, Africa, and the Middle East, where strong regional economic growth creates a steep increase in energy demand. This, of course, adds to the demand of the world’s energy supply. The introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier, alongside electricity, could enable our nation to exploit resources that are best adapted to each region of the country. Hydrogen is also one of the few energy carriers that enables renewable energy sources to be introduced into transport systems.
This is our consumption of resources to meet our energy demands. If we wish to change dependence from oil, we need to provide much energy from another source.
Here as you can see, The U.S is one of the major consumer of oil. More than 3 tons per capita. Not necessarily the energy consumption equals the oil consumption.
Gasification Process in which coal or biomass is converted into gaseous components using steam, then after various chemical reactions we can extract the hydrogen. Steam reforming It involves two steps: Reformation - methane reacting with steam to produce a synthesis gas, a mixture made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide Shift Reaction – the carbon monoxide is reacted with steam to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide
Hydrolysis It involves renewable energy to create hydrogen. In an electrolyzer an electrical surge is used to separate hydrogen from oxygen atoms in water molecules.
A fuel cell is a device that takes stored chemical energy and converts it directly to electrical energy. Basically, it takes the chemical energy stored within the fuel (e.g. hydrogen, methane, and methanol) and converts it into electricity through electrochemical reactions.
Comparison of Fuel Cells with Batteries Fuel cells and batteries have many similarities. Both consist of an anode and a cathode in contact with an electrolyte. Both convert chemicals into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction. In a battery, all the chemicals needed to produce electric power come packaged inside the battery structure, and are consumed during use. So, a battery is said to be a closed system because it has a fixed amount of these chemicals. A battery operates until these chemicals are used up, then it must either be replaced or recharged, depending on the type of battery. Fuel cells are different from batteries in the storage method for the chemicals used to make electric power. The chemicals are supplied from an external source: they are not a part of the fuel cell. So, a Fuel Cell is said to be an open system because it will continue to produce electric power (and heat) as long as the chemicals are supplied. The most common chemicals used in fuel cells are hydrogen and air. Teacher questions: Question: How are batteries and fuel cells alike? Answer: Both consist of anode, cathode, electrolyte. Both use electrochemical reactions to convert chemicals to electrical power. Question: How are batteries and fuel cells different? Answer: Different storage methods for the chemicals: the battery has the chemicals inside, the fuel cell is supplied with chemicals from outside.
The DOE commissioned Battelle to identify likely near-term pre-automotive markets for PEM fuel cells in the 1 kilowatt (kW) to 250 kW range.
PEM fuel cells can also offer significant cost advantages over both battery-generator systems and battery-only systems when shorter run-time capability of up to three days is sufficient. In a study for the U.S. Department of Energy, Battelle Memorial Institute analyzed lifecycle costs of emergency response radio towers, comparing fuel cells with 2kW battery-only backup of 8 hours and 5kW battery-generator backup of 52 hours, 72 hours, and 176 hours. As shown in the table below, on a lifecycle basis, PEM fuel cells can provide service at substantially lower total cost than current technologies (the higher cost of the 176-hour fuel cell system results from the cost of hydrogen storage tank rental). Notes: Total cost includes capital costs and operations and maintenance costs. As of October 2008, fuel cells are eligible for a tax credit of up to $3,000/kW. As shown here, however, fuel cells can be cost-competitive with the previous tax credit of $1,000/kW. Calculations assume 5-year battery replacement schedule.
Hydrogen 101: The Basics of a Hydrogen Economy in South Carolina Shannon Baxter-Clemmons SC Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Alliance Scott Greenway Greenway Energy LLC [email_address]
Economic Growth Takes Energy Source: UN and DOE EIA PPP = Purchasing Power Parity - A rate of exchange that accounts for price differences across countries allowing international comparisons of real output and incomes. US Australia Russia Brazil China India S. Korea Mexico Ireland Greece France UK Japan Malaysia Energy demand and GDP per capita (1980-2002)
Hydrogen and fuel cells have the potential to solve several major challenges:
Benefits of H 2
Sources of Energy Gasification Steam Reforming Coal Biomass Natural Gas Oil H 2 H 2 is an energy carrier, it stores and delivers energy in a usable form. An energy source or energy carrier?
Sources of Energy Wind Solar Hydro Nuclear Water Electrolysis
Hydrogen Production Present Near Future Future
Hydrogen Fuel Cell An electrochemical cell in which the energy of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, is converted directly and continuously into electrical energy. Byproducts of the reaction are water and heat. www.microsec.net www.fuelcelltoday.com Fuel Cell Stack Schematic of a Fuel Cell
Fuel Cells Compared with Batteries Inside a Fuel Cell Inside a Battery
Battelle Report identifies key early PEM fuel cell markets:
Battery vs Fuel Cell Forklifts Fuel Cell Forklift & Refilling Station Battery Forklift & Charging Station Battery Forklift & Changing Battery Difficulty to Steer During Voltage Fade 5-10 min ~ 8 hr ~ 6 hr ~ 6 hr (no fade) ~ 2 hr (fade) 15-20 min ~ 6 hr (no fade) ~ 2 hr (fade) Run Time Voltage 8 hr Run Time Voltage 6 hr 2 hr