Wasted Adult Potential
Scott R. Furtwengler
Justin Neil L. Young
Christine M. Peet
Jessi Cummings-Mengis
Symposium Format
• Conceptions of Giftedness that include
creativity
• Talent Development in Adults: Nurturing
Deviance?
•...
Justin Neil L. Young, M.Ed.
CONCEPTIONS OF GIFTEDNESS THAT
INCLUDE CREATIVITY
Giftedness and Creativity
The way in which evidence is interpreted dictates the role
creativity plays in defining giftedne...
Three Ring Conception
Giftedness is the interaction of above averageability, task commitment, and creativity
(Renzulli, 19...
Three Ring Conception
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Giftedness is present when an individual
demonstrates high levels of intelligence.
• Thre...
Star Model
• Giftedness is the ability to produce thoughts, tangibles,
artistry, or human services that are creative/profi...
Star Model
Dynamic Theory of Giftedness
Social aspects influence development of giftedness
(Babaeva, 1999)
• Based on Vygotsky‟s soci...
Artistic and Musical Giftedness
Giftedness is defined by precocity, intense
motivation, and qualitative differences in
lea...
Differentiated Model of Giftedness
and Talent
• There is a distinction between giftedness and
talent (Gagne, 2003)
– Gifte...
References
Babaeva, J. D. (1999). A dynamic approach to giftedness: Theory and practice. High Ability Studies,
10, 51-68.
...
Scott R. Furtwengler, M.A.
TALENT DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTS:
NURTURING DEVIANCE?
Outline
• Adult Creativity in the context of
intelligence and giftedness
• Benefits of Creative Behavior in Adults
• Obsta...
Creativity
• Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
– Analytical (componential)
– Practical (contextual)
– CREATIVE (...
Sternberg: Creative Facet
• Insight, synthesis, ability to react to novel
situations and stimuli
• On a continuum between ...
Renzulli: Creative-Productive
Giftedness
“Those aspects of human activity and
involvement where a premium is placed on
the...
Subotnik: Talent Development is
the transformation…
• Of abilities into competencies
• Competencies into expertise
• Exper...
Subotnik et al. (2011)
• Ability is necessary for giftedness
• Interest & commitment to a domain are necessary to becoming...
Identifying Adults with Gifted
Behavior
• Explore personal growth and self-efficacy
(Jacobsen, 1998)
• Correlates to an in...
Measures of Creativity
• Save for the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA,
2008), predictive validity is limited
• ...
Creativity & Deviance
• Creative individuals are viewed as deviant
(Wells, Donnell, Thomas, Mills, & Miller,
2006)
• In gr...
Nurturing Deviance
• Creative deviance (Mainemelis, 2010):
neither inherently destructive or constructive
• Positive devia...
Acharya & Taylor (2012)
Positive Deviance & Innovation
• It is intentional, voluntary, purposeful and
discretionary, rathe...
Creative Behavior
• Viewed as deviant (abnormal, aberrant)
behavior
• Not predictable (possible cause for the
difficulty i...
Future research
• Stereotype threat
• Social desirability
• New model for identification
References
Avey, J., Lynn Richmond, F., & Nixon, D. (2012). Leader Positivity and Follower Creativity: An Experimental Ana...
References
Rietzschel, E., Nijstad, B., & Stroebe, W. (2010). The selection of creative ideas after individual idea genera...
Christine Peet, M.Ed.
HOW TO USE THE MEDICAL
MODEL
WHAT IS THE MEDICAL MODEL?
• Set of assumptions
• Looks at behavioral abnormalities
using the same framework as physical
d...
How is creativity currently
identified?
• Social identity analysis (Hirst, Van Dick, &
Van Knippenberg, 2009).

• Problem ...
Problems with Current Identification
•
•
•
•
•

Lacks universal definition
Creativity is often overlooked
Lacks predictive...
Foundation of “medical model”
• Psychoanalytic Theory assumes person
is:
– Sick
– Symptoms
– Cause
– Treatment

• Based on...
Foundation of “medical model”
• Theory of proposed creativity
identification process assumes:
– Data
– Universal definitio...
Why medical model?
Generally succinct
Tangible
Easily understandable
Relies primarily on objective and
measurable observat...
2 Types of diagnoses in medical
model
• Substantial diagnosis
• Nominal diagnosis
Questions to ask
• As diagnosticians, or identifiers of
creativity, are we seeking and using
substantial or nominal diagno...
What the medical model misses
• Phenomena that are not measurable
and quantifiable
• Psychological components
• Stress or ...
Why are psychological measures
important
• Can affect results of creativity measure
• Difficult to measure
What to do Regarding medical
model issues
• Ignore components that do not fit into
the medical model
• Implement alternati...
Problems with medical model
• Psychological vs. physical components
• Difficulty identifying creativity
I‟m creative, but the medical model
did not diagnosis me properly.
• Person may be in the gray area

• Identifiers need to...
Limitations of universal medical
model
• Creativity looks differently throughout
cultures worldwide
• Individual component...
Future research for identifying
creativity
• Improve proposed medical model
• Use a holistic approach
References
Albee, G. W. (1998). Fifty years of clinical psychology: Selling our soul to the devil. Applied & Preventive
Ps...
Question for the Audience
Based on your own personal knowledge,
how would you describe an adult who is
highly creative?
Jessi Cummings-Mengis, M.A.T., M.Ed
CREATIVITY IN DEVIANT
POPULATIONS
How is Creativity Used?
•
•
•
•

Use talents in an illegal fashion
Drop out of high school
Choose not to pursue abilities
...
Incarceration
• 7.1 million incarcerated in 2010
• (Glaze, 2011)

• Costs $26,074 per inmate, per year
• (James, 2013)

• ...
What About Adults?
• Research is focused on children and
adolescents
• Rareness in adult studies
• Unknown about what happ...
What About Adults?
• Relationship between ADHD and a person
in prison
– Overall rate 10.5%
– Male 9.8%
– Female 15.1%
– Ge...
Future Research
• Identify if high levels of creativity exist
within incarcerated populations
• Examine the relationship
•...
Thank you
You can contact Scott Furtwengler at
sfurtwengler@gmail.com
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Wasted Adult Potential

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Presentation on creativity in the adult population by Scott R. Furtwengler, Justin Neil L. Young, Christine M. Peet, and Jessi Cummings-Mengis. Presented on November 8, 2013 at the National Association for Gifted Children annual convention in Indianapolis, IN.
Young: Conceptions of Giftedness that Include Creativity
Furtwengler: Talent Development in Adults: Nurturing Deviance?
Peet: How to Use the Medical Model
Cummings-Mengis: Creativity in Deviant Populations

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  • Mandel (2009) suggests that, absent of an “innovation index;” we can look at indirect indications such as the stock index, the wages of college-educated workers, and the slow improvement of the death rate from 1998-2000 to conclude a lack of creativity and innovation.
  • There are few published studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult inmates, and even fewer studies that have considered ADHD in adult inmates by gender. The present study examined the prevalence of ADHD, its subtypes, and associated psychological and neuropsychological comorbidity as a function of gender in a sample of 3,962 inmates (3,439 men and 523 women; mean age = 33.6 years, range 17–73) who had completed the 250-item, self-report, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR)-aligned Coolidge Correctional Inventory (CCI). The overall ADHD prevalence rate found was 10.5%, which is substantially higher than the rate among adults in the general population (2–5%). The female inmate ADHD prevalence rate (15.1%) was higher than the male inmate ADHD rate (9.8%), consistent with some previous studies. The most prevalent ADHD subtype for both genders was the hyperactive-impulsive subtype. The combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes had higher levels of comorbid psychopathology than the hyperactive-impulsive ADHD subtype.-"There is little doubt that in at least some cases, students of high ability are being 'cured of their giftedness' in exchange for controlled, compliant behavior” -Olenchak
  • Transcript of "Wasted Adult Potential"

    1. 1. Wasted Adult Potential Scott R. Furtwengler Justin Neil L. Young Christine M. Peet Jessi Cummings-Mengis
    2. 2. Symposium Format • Conceptions of Giftedness that include creativity • Talent Development in Adults: Nurturing Deviance? • How to use the Medical Model • Creativity in Deviant Populations
    3. 3. Justin Neil L. Young, M.Ed. CONCEPTIONS OF GIFTEDNESS THAT INCLUDE CREATIVITY
    4. 4. Giftedness and Creativity The way in which evidence is interpreted dictates the role creativity plays in defining giftedness, but there is a great consensus that creativity is necessary for giftedness • Three Ring Model (Renzulli, 1978) • Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg, 2000) • Star Model (Tannenbaum, 2003) • Dynamic Theory of Giftedness (Babaeva, 1999) • Artistic and Musical Giftedness (Winner, 2000) • Differentiated Model of Gifted and Talented (Gagne, 2009)
    5. 5. Three Ring Conception Giftedness is the interaction of above averageability, task commitment, and creativity (Renzulli, 1978) • Academic test scores at the upper limit do not reflect potential for productivity (Wallach, 1976) • Productive persons far more task oriented than general population • Divergent thinking is a characteristic of highly creative people, there is little predictive validity.
    6. 6. Three Ring Conception
    7. 7. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Giftedness is present when an individual demonstrates high levels of intelligence. • Three types of intelligence (Sternberg, 2000) – Analytic – Creative – Practical • Successful intelligence based in both personal and sociocultural standards and context (Sternberg, 2006)
    8. 8. Star Model • Giftedness is the ability to produce thoughts, tangibles, artistry, or human services that are creative/proficient (Tannenbaum, 1986) • Addresses antecedents and concomitants of demonstrated giftedness through five elements – – – – – Superior General Intellect Distinctive Special Aptitudes Nonintellective Requisites Environmental Supports Chance • Elements have both static and dynamic aspects that interact with each other (Tannenbaum, 2003)
    9. 9. Star Model
    10. 10. Dynamic Theory of Giftedness Social aspects influence development of giftedness (Babaeva, 1999) • Based on Vygotsky‟s sociocultural theories – Sociocultural environment presents barrier for positive psychological development – Stimulates compensation process to overcome obstacle – Successful adjustment and incorporation into experience for future use • Creativity increased over time for children in a challenging classroom environment (Babaeva, 1999)
    11. 11. Artistic and Musical Giftedness Giftedness is defined by precocity, intense motivation, and qualitative differences in learning and understanding information in the domain (Winner & Martino, 2003). • Creativity is an aspect of giftedness in within a domain (Winner, 1997) – Everyone has little „c‟ as children – Few obtain big „C‟ in adulthood • “[C]reativity is an inextricable part of giftedness” (Winner, 2003, p. 371)
    12. 12. Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent • There is a distinction between giftedness and talent (Gagne, 2003) – Giftedness includes aptitude domains or natural abilities – Talents are fields in which aptitudes manifest • Creativity considered as aptitude domain or natural ability • Intrapersonal characteristics, environmental factors, and chance influence developmental process between giftedness and talent
    13. 13. References Babaeva, J. D. (1999). A dynamic approach to giftedness: Theory and practice. High Ability Studies, 10, 51-68. Fliegler, L. A., & Bish, C. E. (1959). The gifted and talented. Review of Educational Research, 29, 408– 450. Gagné, F. (1999). Is there light at the end of the tunnel? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 22, 194–234. Gagné, F. (2003). Transforming gifts into talents: The DMGT as a developmental theory . In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 335–349). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Miller, A. L. (2012). Conceptualizations of Creativity: Comparing Theories and Models of Giftedness. Roeper Review, 34, 94-103. doi:10.1080/02783193.2012.660683 Renzulli, J. S. (1978). What makes giftedness? Reexamining a definition. Phi Delta Kappan, 60, 180– 184. Sternberg, R. J. (2000). Patterns of giftedness: A triarchic analysis. Roeper Review, 22, 231–235. Sternberg, R. J. (2006). The Rainbow Project: Enhancing the SAT through assessments of analytical, practical, and creative skills. Intelligence, 34 , 321–350 Tannenbaum, A. J. (1986). Giftedness: A psychosocial approach. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 21–52). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Tannenbaum, A. J. (2003). Nature and nurture of giftedness. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 45–59). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Winner, E. (1997). Giftedness vs. creativity in the visual arts. Poetics , 24 , 349–377. Winner, E. (2000). The origins and ends of giftedness. American Psychologist, 55, 159–169. Winner, E. (2003). Creativity and talent. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Wellbeing: Positive development across the life course (pp. 371–380). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Winner, E. & Martino, G. (2003). Artistic giftedness. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 335–349). Boston, MA: Pearson Education
    14. 14. Scott R. Furtwengler, M.A. TALENT DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTS: NURTURING DEVIANCE?
    15. 15. Outline • Adult Creativity in the context of intelligence and giftedness • Benefits of Creative Behavior in Adults • Obstacles to identification • Measures • Future research
    16. 16. Creativity • Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence – Analytical (componential) – Practical (contextual) – CREATIVE (experiential) • Renzulli: Three Ring Conception of Gifted Behavior – Ability – Task commitment – CREATIVITY
    17. 17. Sternberg: Creative Facet • Insight, synthesis, ability to react to novel situations and stimuli • On a continuum between novelty skills and automatic skills
    18. 18. Renzulli: Creative-Productive Giftedness “Those aspects of human activity and involvement where a premium is placed on the development of original material and products that are purposefully designed to have an impact on one or more target audiences.”
    19. 19. Subotnik: Talent Development is the transformation… • Of abilities into competencies • Competencies into expertise • Expertise into outstanding performance or seminal ideas
    20. 20. Subotnik et al. (2011) • Ability is necessary for giftedness • Interest & commitment to a domain are necessary to becoming a gifted achiever and attaining eminence • Gifted achievement and eminence also depend on appropriate teaching or coaching of psychosocial skills that include persistence and exertion of effort - development of talent requires a substantial investment of time • The percentage of eminent adults is considerably smaller than the percentage of children with gifted potential • Developmental periods in which potential and eminence are recognized differ across domains • The transitions across stages are largely a function of developed psychosocial skills • The emergence of new domains creates additional opportunities for the manifestation and development of talent and eminence
    21. 21. Identifying Adults with Gifted Behavior • Explore personal growth and self-efficacy (Jacobsen, 1998) • Correlates to an individual‟s mental health and well-being (Caddy, Crawford, & Cage, 2012) • Creative employees are important to an organization‟s innovation, productivity, and sustainability (Lukersmith & BurgessLimerick, 2013) • Creative deficit (Mandel, 2009)
    22. 22. Measures of Creativity • Save for the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA, 2008), predictive validity is limited • The Candle Problem (Duncker, 1945) • Wallace/Kogan (1965) • Alternative Uses Test (Guilford, 1967) • Nicholls (1972) suggests that an analysis of creative products is preferable to the trait-based approach in making predictions about creative potential. • Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (1974) • Wallach (1976) proposes that student self-reports about creative accomplishment are sufficiently accurate to provide a usable source of data • Abedi Test of Creativity (ATC, 2000)
    23. 23. Creativity & Deviance • Creative individuals are viewed as deviant (Wells, Donnell, Thomas, Mills, & Miller, 2006) • In group decision-making, group members dislike deviant members and rate morale lower despite increased innovation and creativity (Rijnbout & McKimmie, 2012) • Workers perceive employers as disingenuous when calling for increased innovation (Lencioni, 2010)
    24. 24. Nurturing Deviance • Creative deviance (Mainemelis, 2010): neither inherently destructive or constructive • Positive deviance (Spreitzer & Sonenshein, 2004; Wexler, 2011): intentional behaviors that depart from the norms of a referent group in honorable ways. • Innovative deviance (Acharya & Taylor, 2012)
    25. 25. Acharya & Taylor (2012) Positive Deviance & Innovation • It is intentional, voluntary, purposeful and discretionary, rather than forced or coerced • It involves departure from the norms of a referent group and it therefore unexpected • It is honorable in nature • It is beneficial to employees and organizations
    26. 26. Creative Behavior • Viewed as deviant (abnormal, aberrant) behavior • Not predictable (possible cause for the difficulty in supporting scales with predictive validity) • Not controllable • Scientific method: to predict and control
    27. 27. Future research • Stereotype threat • Social desirability • New model for identification
    28. 28. References Avey, J., Lynn Richmond, F., & Nixon, D. (2012). Leader Positivity and Follower Creativity: An Experimental Analysis. Journal Of Creative Behavior, 46(2), 99-118. doi:10.1002/jocb.8 Binnewies, C., & Gromer, M. (2012). Creativity and innovation at work: the role of work characteristics and personal initiative. Psicothema, 24(1), 100-105. Bloom, B. (1985). Developing talent in young People. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. Caddy, L., Crawford, F., & Page, A. (2012). 'Painting a path to wellness': correlations between participating in a creative activity group and improved measured mental health outcome. Journal Of Psychiatric And Mental Health Nursing, 19(4), 327-333. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2011.01785.x Chell, E., & Athayde, R. (2011). Planning for uncertainty: soft skills, hard skills and innovation. Reflective Practice, 12(5), 615-628. doi:10.1080/14623943.2011.601561 Commons, M., Ross, S., & Bresette, L. (2011). The connection between postformal thought, stage transition, persistence, and ambition and major scientific innovations. In C. Hoare (Ed.) , The Oxford Handbook of Reciprocal Adult Development And Learning (2nd Ed) (pp. 287-301). New York, NY US: Oxford University Press. Coxon, S. (2012). Innovative Allies. Gifted Child Today, 35(4), 277-284. doi:10.1177/1076217512455480 Hicks, J., Pedersen, S., Friedman, R., & McCarthy, D. (2011). Expecting innovation: psychoactive drug primes and the generation of creative solutions. Experimental And Clinical Psychopharmacology, 19(4), 314-320. doi:10.1037/a0022954 Jones, E. (2012). Giving Ourselves Permission to Take Risks. Exchange (19460406), (206), 46-50. Kerr, R. & McKay, R. (2013). Searching for tomorrow‟s innovators: Profiling creative adolescents. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 21-32. doi:10.1080/10400419.2013.752180 Knox, A. (2011). Creativity and Learning. Journal Of Adult And Continuing Education, 17(2), 96-111. Lencioni, P. (2010). Why Companies Need Less Innovation. Businessweek.Com, 3. Lukersmith, S., & Burgess-Limerick, R. (2013). The perceived importance and the presence of creative potential in the health professional's work environment. Ergonomics, 56(6), 922-934. doi:10.1080/00140139.2013.779033 Mainemelis, C. (2010). Stealing fire: Creative deviance in the evolution of new ideas. Academy of Management Review, 35, 558-578. Mandel, M. (2009). INNOVATION INTERRUPTED. (cover story). Businessweek, (4135), 34-40. Meyer, P. (2012). Embodied learning at work: Making the mind-set shift from workplace to playspace. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, 2012(134), 25-32. doi:10.1002/ace.20013 Ness, R. (2011). Commentary: Teaching creativity and innovative thinking in medicine and the health sciences. Academic Medicine: Journal Of The Association Of American Medical Colleges, 86(10), 1201-1203. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e31822bbb9f Renzulli, J.(1998) in Baum, S. M., Reis, S. M., & Maxfield, L. R. (Eds.). Nurturing the gifts and talents of primary grade students. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press.
    29. 29. References Rietzschel, E., Nijstad, B., & Stroebe, W. (2010). The selection of creative ideas after individual idea generation: choosing between creativity and impact. British Journal Of Psychology (London, England: 1953), 101(Pt 1), 47-68. doi:10.1348/000712609X414204 Rijnbout, J. S., & McKimmie, B. M. (2012). Deviance in group decision making: Group-member centrality alleviates negative consequences for the group. European Journal Of Social Psychology, 42(7), 915-923. doi:10.1002/ejsp.1917 Saunders, L. (2012). Silences and silence in „creativity‟. London Review Of Education, 10(2), 215-225. doi:10.1080/14748460.2012.691285 Shavinina, L. (2013). How to Develop Innovators? Innovation Education for the Gifted. Gifted Education International, 29(1), 54-68. Shavinina, L. (2012). The Phenomenon of the "Abortion" of New Ideas and the Impact of "Saved" Ideas and thus Implemented Innovations on the Economy in the Case of Gifted Innovators. Talent Development & Excellence, 4(2), 171-179. Smith, A., Courvisanos, J., Tuck, J., McEachern, S., & National Centre for Vocational Education, R. (2012). Building the Capacity to Innovate: The Role of Human Capital-Support Document. National Centre For Vocational Education Research (NCVER), Spreitzer, G., & Sonenshein, S. (2004). Toward the construct definition of positive deviance. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 828-487. DOI: 10.1177/0002764203260212 Subotnik, R. (2009). Developmental transistions in giftedness and talent: Adolescence into adulthood. The Development of Giftedness Across the Life Span. Horowitz, F., Subotnik, R., & Matthews, D. (Eds.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Subotnik, R. F., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Worrell, F. C. (2011). Rethinking Giftedness and Gifted Education: A Proposed Direction Forward Based on Psychological Science. Psychological Science In The Public Interest (Sage Publications Inc.), 12(1), 3-54. doi:10.1177/1529100611418056 Walberg, N. (2012). The Ten Faces of Innovation: IDEO's Strategies for Beating the Devil's Advocate & Driving Creativity Throughout Your Organization. Colorado Libraries, 36(4), 1. Wexler, M. (2011). POSITIVE DEVIANCE AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT IN PUBLIC AGENCIES. Optimum Online, 41(4), 2.
    30. 30. Christine Peet, M.Ed. HOW TO USE THE MEDICAL MODEL
    31. 31. WHAT IS THE MEDICAL MODEL? • Set of assumptions • Looks at behavioral abnormalities using the same framework as physical disease
    32. 32. How is creativity currently identified? • Social identity analysis (Hirst, Van Dick, & Van Knippenberg, 2009). • Problem identification and instruction based on personality (Reiter-Palmon & Robinson, 2009). • Measuring post-formal thinking (Blouin & McKelvie, 2012).
    33. 33. Problems with Current Identification • • • • • Lacks universal definition Creativity is often overlooked Lacks predictive validity Potential wasted Productivity not maximized
    34. 34. Foundation of “medical model” • Psychoanalytic Theory assumes person is: – Sick – Symptoms – Cause – Treatment • Based on a “problem”
    35. 35. Foundation of “medical model” • Theory of proposed creativity identification process assumes: – Data – Universal definition – Indicators – Patient is involved • Not trying to treat a “problem”
    36. 36. Why medical model? Generally succinct Tangible Easily understandable Relies primarily on objective and measurable observation • Universal definitions and standards • • • •
    37. 37. 2 Types of diagnoses in medical model • Substantial diagnosis • Nominal diagnosis
    38. 38. Questions to ask • As diagnosticians, or identifiers of creativity, are we seeking and using substantial or nominal diagnosis? • How are both approaches useful in practice?
    39. 39. What the medical model misses • Phenomena that are not measurable and quantifiable • Psychological components • Stress or emotional conflict
    40. 40. Why are psychological measures important • Can affect results of creativity measure • Difficult to measure
    41. 41. What to do Regarding medical model issues • Ignore components that do not fit into the medical model • Implement alternative methods
    42. 42. Problems with medical model • Psychological vs. physical components • Difficulty identifying creativity
    43. 43. I‟m creative, but the medical model did not diagnosis me properly. • Person may be in the gray area • Identifiers need to examine the gray area
    44. 44. Limitations of universal medical model • Creativity looks differently throughout cultures worldwide • Individual components to consider: – Environment – Culture – Vocation – Ethnicity
    45. 45. Future research for identifying creativity • Improve proposed medical model • Use a holistic approach
    46. 46. References Albee, G. W. (1998). Fifty years of clinical psychology: Selling our soul to the devil. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 7(1), 189-194. Blouin, P. S., & McKelvie, S. J. (2012). Postformal thinking as a predictor of creativity and of the identification and appreciation of irony and metaphor. North American Journal Of Psychology, 14(1), 39-50. Chodoff, P. (2002). The Medicalization of the Human Condition. Psychiatric Services; doi: 10.1176. Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196 (4286), 129-136. Furnham, A. & Bower, P. (1992). A comparison of academic and lay theories of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161(1), 201-210. Hirst, G., van Dick, R., & van Knippenberg, D. (2009). A social identity perspective on leadership and employee creativity. Journal Of Organizational Behavior, 30(7), 963-982. doi:10.1002/job.60. Laing, R.D. (1971). The Politics of the Family and Other Essays. London: Tavistock Publications. Pilgrim, D. (2002). The biopsychosocial model in Anglo-American psychiatry: Past, prent and future? Journal of Mental Health, 11(6), 585-594. Reiter-Palmon, R., & Robinson, E. J. (2009). Problem identification and construction: What do we know, what is the future?. Psychology Of Aesthetics, Creativity, And The Arts, 3(1), 43-47. doi:10.1037/a0014629. Shah, P. & Mountain, D. (2007). The medical model is deal – long live the medical model. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 375-377. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.037242. Webb, J. T., Amend, E. R., Webb, N. E., Goerss, J., Beljan, P., & Olenchak, F. R., (2004). Misdiagnosis and Dual Diagnoses of Gifted Children and Adults: ADHD, bipolar, OCD, Asperger’s, depression, and other disorders. Scottsdale: Great Potential Press.
    47. 47. Question for the Audience Based on your own personal knowledge, how would you describe an adult who is highly creative?
    48. 48. Jessi Cummings-Mengis, M.A.T., M.Ed CREATIVITY IN DEVIANT POPULATIONS
    49. 49. How is Creativity Used? • • • • Use talents in an illegal fashion Drop out of high school Choose not to pursue abilities Waste potential • (Borzyskowski, 2009; Cratty, 2012; Grantham, 2011; Kim, 2008; Kampylis & Valtanen, 2010; Rawe, 2007; Whiting, 2009; Zablowski, 2012)
    50. 50. Incarceration • 7.1 million incarcerated in 2010 • (Glaze, 2011) • Costs $26,074 per inmate, per year • (James, 2013) • After parole, 32.4% come back after three year • (Jones, 2010)
    51. 51. What About Adults? • Research is focused on children and adolescents • Rareness in adult studies • Unknown about what happens to unidentified individuals • Unknown about creativity/gifted and illegal use
    52. 52. What About Adults? • Relationship between ADHD and a person in prison – Overall rate 10.5% – Male 9.8% – Female 15.1% – General population (2-5%) • (Cahill, 2012) • Relationship between ADHD and a person who is gifted
    53. 53. Future Research • Identify if high levels of creativity exist within incarcerated populations • Examine the relationship • Work backwards – Programs to decrease recidivism – Identify youth – Use creativity in legal ways
    54. 54. Thank you You can contact Scott Furtwengler at sfurtwengler@gmail.com
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