John Baldwin Managing Director, CNG Services Ltd C Eng M I Mech E, M I Gas E, MA (Oxon) [email_address] www.cngservices.co.uk 0121 707 8581, 07831 241217 4 June 09 Biomethane bus potential in UK and Europe
Natural gas contains around 90% methane, with ethane, propane, butane, CO2 and nitrogen making up the rest
Made from dinosaur poo in a prehistoric AD, contaminated over the millenia
Mercury, radioactivity, hundreds of chemicals, yucky
Biomethane is bio-gas without the CO2, containing around 98% methane
Malt whisky, the elixir of life
Biogas/BioSNG Production By Anaerobic Digestion or Gasification Distribution The gas grid and vehicles love biomethane because of its purity Organic Resources Including food waste, agriculture waste & sewage Clean up to Biomethane To meet gas quality standards Gas network to >80% of UK homes Buses Buses can run on biomethane
DEFRA vision for AD This is very good news for the environment and for the UK economy
Biomethane to Grid (BtG) Widespread consensus that gas grid injection is attractive because of absence of uses for waste heat where renewable methane is made. Take the gas to the customers along existing pipelines and have high efficiency utilisation….no need to move biomass by road…or use the biomethane to fuel buses on it
At present, biogas is rewarded when used to make electricity and when used as a vehicle fuel
But it is not rewarded when used as a form of renewable heat
However, good news is that the Energy Act 2008 Supports Biomethane to Grid
Consultation to follow in Q2 2009
Financial premium for gas injected to the gas grid likely to be in the range 120 – 200 p/therm
The smaller number is broadly equivalent to double ROCs for a large AD
The larger number reflects benefit greater level of fossil fuel replacement
Premium needs to incentivise the right market behaviour as we cannot afford to pour malt whisky down the drain….
Premium will be paid from April 2011
We are asking DECC to signal the level of tariff and mechanism so we can divert PFI organic waste from local electricity generation to BtG and get double the renewable benefit….avoiding a 25 year regret
Use of renewable methane Generate electricity , some use for Waste heat Energy used – displacing fossil fuel Energy wasted – no displacing of Fossil fuel Run vehicles in dual fuel diesel-biomethane engine Inject to gas grid , displace fossil methane in heating 45% 55% 100% 100% as energy used to make diesel is greater than energy to make compressed biomethane Around 55% of the energy in the renewable methane is wasted 100% 100% as energy used to make biomethane is similar to energy used to transport gas to UK by pipeline Given the need to displace 15% of fossil fuels by renewable fuels by 2020, the transport and heating uses for biomethane are around 2 x better than the electricity use (even with some local heat use)
EU Renewable Energy Directive – double the benefit if the transport fuel is made from waste….
Local air quality benefits, NOX, particulates
Significantly reduced noise
Reform of the BSOG
Encouragement to biomethane buses
The Govt needs revenue – but taxing biomethane used to fuel buses is not the main target area!
What about biomethane as a vehicle fuel? How is it made?
Making biomethane Lots of ways of cleaning up raw biogas to make Biomethane with the technology shown as a ‘black box’ This shows biomethane going into the gas grid, with addition of propane (to increase the calorific value) and odorant (to give a smell) Gas Grid From Anaerobic Digester Or can go direct to CNG compressor and vehicles from here
Compressed biomethane vehicle fuel Local Gas Grid Pipe CNG Compressors Storage Cascade Dispenser Biogas supply from Anaerobic Digester Propane and odorant then gas grid injection Biogas Clean-up plant Back-up supply from gas grid 0.01 bar 7 bar 250 bar Typically 1 bar Vehicle use and Biomethane to Grid go together
How does biomethane compare with other bio-fuels in its ability to convert sunlight falling on a hectare of land into a useful vehicle fuel ?
Lille Video (2) Weed the garden You won’t hear them (50% less noise than diesel) You won’t smell them (close to zero NOX and particulates) Make bio-methane, Fill the buses Don’t eat the celery But you’ll be delighted to ride on them Looks too good to be true – carbon neutral bus travel, with very low Nox and particulates
We have the gas grid and the full support of UK gas distribution network owners and energy suppliers
We have the organic resources and the political vision to develop anaerobic digesters
We have a landfill problem and the need to recycle waste
Biomethane injection into gas grid is widespread in Europe, no material technical issues (its just processing gas on a small scale)
We have vehicles made by OEMs such as VW, Iveco and MB
We have a bus industry that could make buses
We are starting to reform BSOG
Put all this together and we can create a thriving domestic biomethane fuelled bus industry that is able to make a very material contribution towards the UK’s 2020 targets
There are no material technical issues or barriers, we just need the BtG premium to be set as soon as possible so that we can get on with it and start producing biomethane that can go into the gas grid and into buses