Bio Natural Gas For Cleaner Urban Transport

1,373 views
1,202 views

Published on

CNG FILES

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,373
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bio Natural Gas For Cleaner Urban Transport

  1. 1. Bio-natural-gas for cleaner urban transport BIOGASMAX European Biomethane Fuel Conference Göteborg. September 7-9th, 2009 Manuel Lage, Dr. Eng. General Manager Göteborg. September 2009 1
  2. 2. Energy content of different fuels 36 MJ/L 38 MJ/Nm3 33 MJ/L 32 MJ/L 32MJ/L 24 MJ/L 21 MJ/L 11 MJ/Nm3 DIE BIO EM NA PE ET LP HY SE DI E UL TU TR HA G DR L S SI O RA OL NO OG EL NF LG L EN UE AS L Göteborg. September 2009 2
  3. 3. CNG. CO2 emission 3,3 1,4 3,2 3,2 3,15 1,2 3,1 kg CO2 / kg fuel kg CO2 / kW·h 0,97 1 3,02 3 0,87 2,9 0,8 0,75 0,73 2,8 2,75 0,6 2,7 0,4 2,6 2,5 0,2 Diesel Petrol LPG Natural Gas Göteborg. September 2009 3
  4. 4. Advantages of bio & natural gas • Natural gas is an alternative fuel coming from natural wells. It is mainly methane (CH4) • Biogas is also a methane rich gas, produced by the fermentation of the biomass, it is then a renewable fuel. • Methane contents 25% H and 75% C, in weight As a comparison, • Petrol contents 13,5% H and 86,5% C • Diesel oil contents 13,5% H and 86,5% C • LPG contents 17,4% H and 82,6% C Due to its molecular advantage, regulated exhaust emissions and CO2 are particularly favourable in the engines running on natural gas. Göteborg. September 2009 4
  5. 5. Advantages of CNG for city transportation Both CNG engine combustion technologies used in trucks and buses: Lean Burn and Stoichiometric, offer very significant advantages: • Much lower gaseous emissions • Much lower noise • Reduced CO2 emission In the case of the stoichiometric mixture combustion, exhaust pollutants are very near the fuel cell level Göteborg. September 2009 5
  6. 6. CNG. NOx comparative emissions Compared NOx emissions: Diesel vs CNG and Fuel Cell (Source: IVECO) 6 Euro 3 Diesel 5 engines 4 Euro 4 3 EEV limits Euro 5 2 1 CNG IVECO stoich. Fuel cell 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Göteborg. September 2009 6
  7. 7. CNG. Other Emissions Comparison Emissions IVECO CURSOR 8 CNG engine vs present and future Euro limits (Source: IVECO) 6,00 5,45 5,00 EURO 3 (2001) 5,00 EURO 4 (2006) EURO 5 (2009) 4,00 4,00 E.E.V. 4,00 IVECO Emission (Gr), g/kWh 3,50 3,00 3,00 2,00 2,00 2,00 1,55 1,60 1,10 1,10 1,00 0,78 0,65 0,500,50 0,53 0,40 0,16 0,03 0,01 0,008 0,03 0,02 0,0022 0,00 CO NMHC CH4 NOX PT Exhaust pollutants Göteborg. September 2009 7
  8. 8. Noise emitted by the truck 1 Vehicle #1: IVECO 240E25 6x2 RSU Vehicle #2: IVECO 240E26 6x2 RSU CNG (EEV) Refuse collection chassis cab with body Vehicles laden and compacting Vehicles stationary 6 2 Vehicle #1 Vehicle #2 dB(A) 76 74 72 Ave 5 7.0 m 3 70 71 dB(A) 68 66 Ave 66 dB(A) 64 Microphone height = 1.5 m 62 60 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 (position) Göteborg. September 2009 8
  9. 9. European market development (1) Eur ope (w ithout Italy) 80000 70000 60000 50000 France u n g ak R n in p r Germany 40000 Sw eden Sw itzerland Austria 30000 20000 10000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Ye ar s Göteborg. September 2009 9
  10. 10. European market development (2) Europe . Eas te rn countrie s 350000 300000 250000 R n in p rk 200000 Armenia u n g a Bulgaria Russia 150000 Ukraina 100000 50000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Ye ars Göteborg. September 2009 10
  11. 11. European market development (3) Italy and Total Europe 1400000 1200000 1000000 u n g ak 800000 R n in P r Italy Total Europe 600000 400000 200000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Ye ars Göteborg. September 2009 11
  12. 12. World markets: Argentina The driver for this development has been economic. Most of the NGVs are conversions from petrol cars. The minor cost difference today smoothes the growth Göteborg. September 2009 12
  13. 13. World markets: Pakistan The driver for this development has also been economic. NGVs are both conversions from petrol and new cars, now available. Göteborg. September 2009 13
  14. 14. World markets: Iran The driver has been the Government Strategy. Iran strategy is to export all the oil produced and have NG as the domestic fuel. All new cars produced in the country have to be necessarily NGV. Göteborg. September 2009 14
  15. 15. Series production CNG cars (1) Göteborg. September 2009 15
  16. 16. Fiat Doblò Panorama Göteborg. September 2009 16
  17. 17. Fiat Doblò. CNG tanks positioning Göteborg. September 2009 17
  18. 18. Madrid CNG Refuse collection fleet Göteborg. September 2009 18
  19. 19. Yearly emission savings Iveco CNG (EEV) vs. Diesel Euro 3 limits NOx 132.391 kg CO + HC + PM 703.000 kg CO2 2.069.440 kg Plus a 30% less fuel cost per kilometre! Göteborg. September 2009 19
  20. 20. Madrid CNG Refuse collection fleet 800 675 700 600 500 445 379 400 300 200 100 42 2 0 1994 2000 2003 2005 2007 Göteborg. September 2009 20
  21. 21. Food distribution on CNG chassis Göteborg. September 2009 21
  22. 22. CNG urban buses Irisbus Iveco CITYCLASS CNG 12 m MB CITARO CNG 12 m BEIJING BUS, IVECO TECTOR CNG engine Irisbus Iveco CITYCLASS CNG 18 m MB CITARO CNG 18 m Göteborg. September 2009 22
  23. 23. CNG urban buses in Europe 9000 8000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 2334 2000 1300 847 860 1000 418 0 e y ce a ly en n ec si an ai Ita an ed us Sp re m Fr Sw G R er G Göteborg. September 2009 23
  24. 24. Future developments of NGV’s NGVA Europe sees the development of NGV’s in the medium term future following three main lines: – Biogas – LNG for trucks and buses – Methane-Hydrogen mixtures Göteborg. September 2009 24
  25. 25. Biogas Another source of Natural Gas (1) • Biogas comes from fermentation processes of biomass (organic waste, landfills, vegetable and animal feedstock), which produces methane rich gases. • Biogas brings together the advantages of natural gas with the environmental benefits of renewable energy sources. • Due to the wide different types of sources: forestry, landfills, agricultural; there is a large and wide potential for biogas production in Europe, where it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. Göteborg. September 2009 25
  26. 26. Biogas Another source of Natural Gas (2) • The raw biogas composition is variable depending upon different factors like garbage origin, humidity, temperature, etc., but it normally contains 50-55% of methane (CH4) and 40-42% of carbon dioxide (CO2). • The depuration of this gas means: • avoiding the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere • reusing the CO2 as a commercial product • eliminating other pollutants like Cl2, F2, SH2 • the purified biogas will have a 90-95% methane content • In terms of use in vehicles, the advantages of natural gas are increased with a much better balance of total CO2 due to the renewable origin of biogas. Göteborg. September 2009 26
  27. 27. Big cities. Gas use vs biogas potential The yearly consumption of natural gas of the complete fleet of 445 garbage collection trucks is: • 10.5 MM cubic meter The yearly biogas production of the city is of about 40 MM cubic meter, that once refined would mean: • 22 MM cubic meter of biomethane This volume is enough to fuel the full fleet of garbage collection (445 units) plus a similar figure of urban buses (25% of the total fleet of 2.000 units) Göteborg. September 2009 27
  28. 28. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) The solution for medium-long distance 200 bar Diesel vs CNG & LNG Autonomy equivalence 200 bar CNG 200 bar 5 litre 200 bar Diesel oil 200 bar 1 litre LNG -162OC 1,8 litre LNG opens the way for the medium-long distance road transport Göteborg. September 2009 28
  29. 29. CNG vs LNG. Tank configuration 8 tanks of 80 lt. 640 lt. CNG eq. to 128 lit. diesel 1 single LNG 360 lt. tank eq. to 200 lt. diesel (56% more) Göteborg. September 2009 29
  30. 30. LNG Prototype tractors MB and IVECO Göteborg. September 2009 30
  31. 31. Methane/Hydrogen mixtures A bridge towards the hydrogen fuelled transport Methane/Hydrogen mixture (Hythane, Idrometano) offers a number of significant advantages as a bridge solution for a future hydrogen fuelled transport: –It can be used in the existing NGV engines and vehicles with minor engine resetting –The inboard fuel storage uses the same type of tanks and fittings, with some specification changes in materials –The H2 content considered (~20%) does not alter the autonomy of the vehicles –There is an immediate impact as CO2 emission reduction –The use of compressed H2 in a “large” basis will push ahead the development of the hydrogen production and logistics Göteborg. September 2009 31
  32. 32. Conclusions • Natural gas (methane) is an excellent energy vector, with the lowest Carbon to Hydrogen ratio of all the hydrocarbons. Additionally natural gas is an alternative fuel, having a different origin from the traditional oil derived diesel, petrol and LPG • Natural gas can be used in existing internal combustion engines, with minor additional investments, taking advantage of a well known and mature car & commercial vehicle technology • The increasing production of biomethane, both from urban waste and from agricultural stuff is giving natural gas the new and valuable consideration of a renewable fuel • Natural gas has been used so far as CNG mainly for urban applications. The availability of LNG will spread its use for medium and long distances road transport • Methane/Hydrogen mixtures, that could be used the existing NGVs will become the bridge to a potential hydrogen fuelled transport • NG vehicles are today the best and most economic alternative to oil derived fuels, also improving gaseous and acoustic emissions. Göteborg. September 2009 32
  33. 33. manuel.lage@ngvaeurope.eu www.ngvaeurope.eu Göteborg. September 2009 33

×