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Principles of Smart Home Control
 

Principles of Smart Home Control

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Seeking to be sensitive to users, smart home researchers have focused on the concept of control. They attempt to allow users to gain control over their lives by framing the problem as one of end-user ...

Seeking to be sensitive to users, smart home researchers have focused on the concept of control. They attempt to allow users to gain control over their lives by framing the problem as one of end-user programming. But families are not users as we typically conceive them, and a large body of ethnographic research shows how their activities and routines do not map well to programming tasks. End-user programming ultimately provides control of devices. But families want more control of their lives. In this paper, we explore this disconnect. Using grounded contextual fieldwork with dual-income families, we describe the control that families want, and suggest seven design principles that will help end-user programming systems deliver that control. By Scott Davidoff, Min Kyung Lee, Charles Yiu, John Zimmerman + Anind K. Dey.

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Principles of Smart Home Control Principles of Smart Home Control Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • CURRENT RESEARCH
    • Smart home control systems
    • provide control of devices
    Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP
  • CURRENT RESEARCH
    • CAMP (Truong et al, 04)
    DISCIPLINARY GAP microCommander (Jahnke et al, 02) Speakeasy (Newman et al, 02) Jigsaw (Humble et al, 03)
  • CURRENT RESEARCH
    • Smart home control systems
    • provide control of devices
    Families are struggling to gain control of their lives Anthropological Perspective Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP
  • CURRENT RESEARCH
    • Smart home control systems
    • provide control of devices
    Families are struggling to gain control of their lives Anthropological Perspective Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP How can smart home control systems help users regain control of their devices
  • CURRENT RESEARCH
    • Smart home control systems
    • provide control of devices
    Families are struggling to gain control of their lives Anthropological Perspective Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP How can smart home control systems help users regain control of their devices families lives
    • Recast the problem of smart home control
    • Suggest new evaluation metrics for smart home control systems
    • Provide rich description of nuanced notion of control
    • Produce design principles to serve as signposts
    CONTRIBUTIONS
    • Increased obligations
    • “ Multi-contexting” across roles
    • A skill parents want to gracefully master
    • Parents want to pass this skill on
    Darrah 2000, 2002 RELATED WORK BUSYNESS AS A MORAL GOOD
    • A “house of cards”
    • “ The rush hour of life”
    • Fear of the sick child
    Beech 2004, Frissen 2000, Darrah 2002 RELATED WORK LESS THAN IDEAL CONTROL
    • Systems for family life control will have to co-exist with busyness
    RELATED WORK IMPLICATIONS
    • Goal: develop an opportunity map for technology to aid families
    • 12 dual-income families
    • Large audience, lots of needs, early adopters
    FIELDWORK SUMMARY
    • “ Wicked problem” of activity management
    • Flexibility as a coping strategy
    • Relationship between control and flexibility
    • Activities construct identity
    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS * Rittel 1973
  • FINDINGS “ WICKED” PROBLEM OF ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT
  • EXAMPLE GAME OR PRACTICE? HOME OR AWAY? WHAT TIME?
  • EXAMPLE WHO PICKS UP? WHO DROPS OFF? WHERE?
  • EXAMPLE SHIN GUARDS, KNEE PADS. CLEATS OR FLATS?
  • EXAMPLE PRACTICE UNIFORM? HOME OR AWAY UNIFORM?
  • EXAMPLE CLEAN CLOTHES THE NIGHT BEFORE
  • EXAMPLE JUICE BEFORE OR AFTER? ORANGES AT HALFTIME?
  • EXAMPLE LOST ON THE CALENDAR
  • BREAKDOWNS LAST MINUTE CARPOOL DECISIONS
  • BREAKDOWNS MOM’S OUT OF TOWN SO DAD’S IN CHARGE
  • BREAKDOWNS MOM’S OUT OF TOWN SO DAD’S IN CHARGE
  • BREAKDOWNS MOM’S OUT OF TOWN SO DAD’S IN CHARGE
  • BREAKDOWNS CREEPING RESPONSIBILITY
  • BREAKDOWNS CREEPING RESPONSIBILITY
  • BREAKDOWNS UNPREDICTABLE ORANGES
  • BREAKDOWNS SICK CHILD
  • BREAKDOWNS CASCADE EFFECTS
    • Incremental precision
    • Improvisation
    • Technological infrastructure
    • Lifestyle choices
    FINDINGS FLEXIBILITY AS A COPING STRATEGY
  • FINDINGS CONTROL AND FLEXIBILITY
  • FINDINGS ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCT FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Activities mean more than the work behind them People derive meaning from their participation
    • Now what?
    RELATED WORK
  • DESIGN PRINCIPLES
    • Allow for the organic evolution of routines and plans
    • Participate in the construction of family identity
    • The home is more than a location
    • Understand periodic changes, exceptions and improvisation
    • Design for breakdowns
    • Easily construct new plans and routines, and modify existing ones
    • Account for multiple, overlapping and occasionally conflicting goals
  • PRINCIPLE ALLOW FOR THE ORGANIC EVOLUTION OF ROUTINES AND PLANS Hard to specify a priori Incremental precision Many routines are “unremarkable” * Tolmie 2002
  • PRINCIPLE PARTICIPATE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY IDENTITY Some tasks are more than work They constitute how we interpret who we are
  • PRINCIPLE THE HOME IS MORE THAN A LOCATION Opportunistic planning occurs in many locations A smart home is more than a physical space Also includes “information space”
  • PRINCIPLE UNDERSTAND PERIODIC CHANGES, EXCEPTIONS AND IMPROV Routines are often not routine Vary by season Routines change with exceptions Rigid model of routines would not fit observation
  • CONCLUSIONS Family is a place of busyness where identity and life control collide Opportunity for technology to improve quality of family life Design principles help address this space Evaluate smart home technology in terms of life control
  • FUTURE WORK Develop an activity manager system Evaluate system in terms of identity and control Develop end-user programming method
    • smarthome.cs.cmu.edu
    Scott Davidoff Min Kyung Lee John Zimmerman Anind Dey PROJECT ON FAMILIES, CONTROL AND THE SMART HOME
  • PRINCIPLE EASILY CONSTRUCT AND MODIFY PLANS AND ROUTINES Sheer frequency should merit attention Input should be low-cost
  • PRINCIPLE DESIGN FOR BREAKDOWNS Exceptions happen frequently Complete solution is impossible
  • PRINCIPLE DESIGN FOR BREAKDOWNS
  • PRINCIPLE ACCOUNT FOR MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING AND CONFLICTING GOALS More than one person May not agree on task performance metrics “ Thermostat Predicament” Support v. Independence
  • METHOD Directed storytelling Shadowing Artifact walkthrough Role-playing: Fictitious school field trip Predictable days Predictable exceptions Unpredictable days: miss-the-bus days CONTEXTUAL FIELDWORK
  • METHOD
    • Stimuli questions
    • Free response text
    • Camera
    • Stressors and pleasures of waking up and arriving home
    • What makes parents feel like good parents
    CULTURAL PROBES
  • METHOD
    • Stress and rush levels
    • Principal activities
    • Immediate needs
    • Preoccupations
    ACTIVITY LOGS
  • RELATED WORK
    • iCAP
    • aCAPpella
    • CAMP
    • Jigsaw
    • Alfred
    • microCommander
    • Speakeasy
    Dey et al 2006 Dey et al 2004 Truong et al 2004 Humble et al 2003 Gajos et al 2002 Jahnke et al 2002 Newman et al 2002 END-USER PROGRAMMING SYSTEMS
  • RELATED WORK
    • Comprehensive
    • Communication
    • Routines
    • Task specialization
    Refrigerator magnets Meaning of place ICT’S Technology use Darrah 2001 Beech et al 2004 Crabtree + Rodden 2003 Tolmie et al 2002 Rode et al 2005 Taylor + Swan 2005 Elliott et al 2005 Frissen 2000 Venkatesh et al 2000 STUDIES OF HOME LIFE
  • PRINCIPLE ACCOUNT FOR MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING AND CONFLICTING GOALS
  • PRINCIPLE ACCOUNT FOR MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING AND CONFLICTING GOALS
  • PRINCIPLE ALLOW FOR THE ORGANIC EVOLUTION OF ROUTINES AND PLANS
  • PRINCIPLE PARTICIPATE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY IDENTITY
  • PRINCIPLE PARTICIPATE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY IDENTITY
  • PRINCIPLE UNDERSTAND PERIODIC CHANGES, EXCEPTIONS AND IMPROV
  • PRINCIPLE THE HOME IS MORE THAN A LOCATION