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Gender Resource Tool
• for use in Malawi schools to
help raise awareness of the
Gender Equality Act (2013)
• for teachers to use with pupils
– upper primary
– girls and boys
• Mairi Brown appointed as
– background in Community
Shape of the tool
• Will be a paper booklet
– later, a poster/s to supplement
Understanding Gender Issues
Understanding The Malawi Gender Equality Act
50:50 IS POSSIBLE
Malawi’s strategy to achieve gender equality
in the 2014 tri-partite elections
• Launched December 2013
• Activities funded largely by Royal Norwegian
• Coordinated by NGO Gender Coordination
• Women aspirants/candidates for local
government supported by the Scottish
• Delivered by the Active Learning Centre
• 1994: 6% women elected to parliament
• 1999: 9.3%
• 2004: 14%
• 2009: 22%
• No local government elections for 14 years
• International protocols (Africa Union, SADS) sets
50% as the target
Goal of 50 50 strategy
• To contribute to achieving that 50% target
• Enhanced awareness among political parties and
others on the need to field and support women
• Motivating women to stand
• Mobilising the electorate to vote for women
• Identification of women aspiring candidates
• Training of women MP and council aspirants
• Advocacy meetings with district political party leaders
• Advocacy meetings with traditional and religious leaders
in the districts
Orientation meetings with journalists
Profiling of women aspirants in the media
Community sensitization meetings
Gender sensitive monitoring of primaries, the campaign
period and the polling day
Provision of campaign materials
The biggest challenge
• Nomination papers have to be in for 10 – 14th
• Political parties choose the candidates:
• DPP (completed) – 95 LC (467) and 45 MP (194)
• MCP (ongoing) 12 LC and 16 MPs
• PP (ongoing) 35% women
Timeline for developing guidance:
Nov/Dec 2013: Consulted MaSP Members
Nov 2013-March 2014: Research and draft literature
Feb-March 2014: Consulted SMP Members
April 2014: First draft of SMP per diems guidance
May 2014: SMP event on per diems to discuss guidance
June/July 2014: SMP final guidance on per diems
published on SMP website
What is a ‘Per Diem’?
o Latin for ‘by the day’
o Daily determined allowance for extra
expenses incurred while working away from
normal duty stations, including travel, lodging
and meal costs (Norad 2010)
o Also known as ‘administrative modalities’
o Used by governments, the development and
Functions of Per Diems
1. Reimbursement of work-related expenses
2. Encouraging capacity-building and
3. Improve efficiency and reduce extra costs in
detailing exact expenses (‘paper push’)
Perceived benefits of per diems
o Fair compensation for costs incurred
o Aids in the development of skills, sharing of
o Providing incentive for those with low salaries
How have per diems been abused?
o Ranges from ‘survival coping strategy’ to fraud
o Abuse is generally understood at its root as
connected with low-wages (Chene 2009)
o High level officials taking place of lower-level
o Failure of donors to standardise rates (Ridde
Short and Long-term effects
o Increased attendance, more productive training
sessions and workshops
o But…..can also lead to ‘drain brain’ or ‘workshop
o Feeds into low wage rates as per diems are
viewed as salary supplements or coping
strategies (feedback loop)
o Unhealthy institutional culture (Norad 2012)
o Unequal playing field between larger
development organisations and smaller or locallybased NGOs
Input from MaSP members:
• DEFINITIONS: a clearer definition of “per diems” was needed before a clear
position can be made. Different understandings of the term caused
• REFORM: look at per diems on a case by case basis, depending on the
persons role, task, distance they have to travel, salary, etc.
• STANDARDISED SYSTEM: across NGOs (a report has recently been published
by NGOs in Malawi seeking to standardise rates-this has been made
available to the SMP).
• INCLUSIVITY: the absence of per diems can exclude those in rural areas from
participating in meetings.
• ABUSE: Has led to people chasing allowances, instead of doing the work
they are employed to do.
• SALARIES: per diems have skewed basic salary levels in Malawi
• ADVICE: Malawian CSOs are looking for more advice and guidance for a
Per Diems: FAQs
• What is a per diem?
• Where did the practice of paying
per diems originate from?
• What are the perceived benefits
of paying per diems?
• How have/can per diems be
• What is the short-term impact of
paying per diems?
• What is the long-term impact of
paying per diems?
• What have been some of the
experiences of SMP members?
• What is the position of the Malawi •
Government in paying per diems?
• What is the position of
international NGOs in Malawi on
paying per diems?
Is there a typical rate at which per
diems are paid?
What is the position of MaSP on
paying per diems?
What is SMP’s position?
What is the position of the
Scottish Government? How has
the challenge of paying per diems
been addressed/what are some
Where can I read more about
research on per diems?
Where can I get further advice?
• Has the issue of per diems come up in your particular link with
Malawi? Has this been a problem? If so how?
• Has your link developed productive and sustainable practices
to address the challenge of per diems? Please give examples.
• Does the proposed format of FAQs on per diems provide the
information you need to make informed decisions about per
diems. If not what other information (statistics, current rates,
academic literature) would you like to have in order to make
informed decisions about per diems?
• What form would this be most useful in (pamphlet, research
paper, web page, etc)?
• Would you attend a specific event with other SMP members
looking at the topic of per diems. If so what content should be
included in the event?