Colette Robertson-Kellie-Water Safety Plans


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21st September 2011
GCL: Agriculture, Food Security and Water Access

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Colette Robertson-Kellie-Water Safety Plans

  1. 1. Water Safety Plans inScotland and Malawi Dr Colette Robertson-Kellie Regulation Manager Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland Aaron MapsereMinistry for Irrigation and Water Development, Malawi
  2. 2. Introduction to Water Safety Plans• World Health Organisation: “The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking-water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer.”
  3. 3. Traditionally….• Samples taken to determine whether supply safe – Relevant to specific point in time• Consumers report aesthetic changes to supply• Outbreaks of illness linked to drinking water – Reported incidents are probably tip of iceberg!
  4. 4. What is a Water Safety Plan? Water resources & sources Distribution Treatment Consumer system system• A proactive risk management strategy which: • Identifies risks in a water supply system from catchment to consumer • Prioritises risks • Mitigates risks through control measures • Minimises risks to a supply
  5. 5. WSP components System Assessment System Management & Monitoring Assessment Communications•System Assessment •A detailed risk assessment •From water source to consumers’ taps •Determines whether the water supply chain can deliver water of a sufficient quality and quantity•Monitoring •Monitoring of the control measures in the supply chain that are of particular importance in securing water safety•Management and Communication •Management plans describing the actions to be undertaken from normal conditions to extreme events
  6. 6. Prioritisation of Risks• The WSP will highlight a number of risks• The Hazard Assessment Matrix can be used to prioritise risks and control measures – gives a numerical rating – prioritises tasks
  7. 7. Advantages of WSP• Help prevent waterborne disease• Deliver real and lasting health benefits• Work in resource limited settings• Save money in the long-term – Help target resources and investment in a structured manner – Help identify and prevent potential hazards and hazardous events – Help minimise incidents• Are internationally recognised and promoted by WHO
  8. 8. Cost of WSP• Do not have to be costly• Do what can be done within existing resources• May provide a lever to obtain additional resources• WSP can optimise existing resources
  9. 9. Scotland and Malawi Working Together• Aaron Mapsere awarded Commonwealth Professional fellowship to visit Scotland in 2008• 10 week fellowship• Main aims – To work with Drinking Water Quality Regulator • Regulates water quality duties of Scottish Water • Supervises water quality duties of local authorities – To study Scottish drinking water risk assessment model – To implement risk assessment model in Malawi
  10. 10. Aaron’s Work in Scotland• Series of visits to inspect water supplies in Scotland• Gain practical experience of Water Safety Plans – Large urban public supplies – Remote public supplies – Private / Community run water supplies
  11. 11. Drinking Water in Scotland Public Water Supply or Private Water Supply
  12. 12. Public water supplies in Scotland• 97% of population• 263 Water Treatment Works• Managed by Scottish Water – Publicly owned• Public supply of high quality – 2010 – 99.83% of regulatory samples passed standards
  13. 13. Example of Public Supply
  14. 14. Private Water Supplies in Scotland• 3% of population• Over 19,000 private water supplies• Responsibility of owners and users of supplies• Water Quality regulated by local authorities• Generally small rural supplies• Private water supplies of variable quality – 2010 – 91.95% of regulatory samples passed standards
  15. 15. Example of PWS
  16. 16. Small Community Water Supplies The Challenges• Located in rural and/or remote areas;• Limited funding;• Higher per capita costs;• Difficult to recruit and train operators;• Unclear roles and responsibilities;• Perception of risks not clear• Supplies not always understood More frequently associated with waterborne disease in both developed & developing countries
  17. 17. Malawi’s Water Supplies• Approx 85% of population rural and peri- urban• Majority have inadequate access to safe water
  18. 18. Scotland’s experience ofWater Safety Plans
  19. 19. WSP - Public Supplies• WSP developed and managed by Scottish Water• Site visits held to fully understand and document the system and risks• ‘Workshops’ held – To compile information on supplies – All appropriate staff involved with the supply attend – WSP ownership identified• All public supplies required to have WSP• DWQR monitors effectiveness• To work effectively must be a living document
  20. 20. Private Water Supply Risk Assessments• Legislation requires risk assessments of – larger supplies – those with commercial or public activity• Owners or users of other supplies can request risk assessments• Carried out by local authorities• Technical manual and website for guidance by Scottish Government• Identify hazards, and helps to reduce risk• Adequate for small simple supplies
  21. 21. Private water supply Water Safety Plans• Water Safety Plans now being developed – Risk assessment and risk management – Larger, more complex or problematic supplies
  22. 22. DWQR’s Activities• Active member of World Health Organisation’s International Small Community Water Supply Network – Aim: to promote the achievement of substantive and sustainable improvements to the safety of small community water supplies around the world, particularly in rural areas – Hosted meeting in Edinburgh 2007 – Contributes to best practice materials – Feeds examples of implementation into network – Shares practical experiences – Supports implementation of Risk Assessments/WSP in developing countries – Learns from other countries – Inspired by other countries
  23. 23. • Invited Member of UN-ECE / WHO Protocol Expert Group – Water and Health’s Work Programme 2011- 2013 – Small Scale Water Supplies: • Development of a policy and guidance document • Improvement of the evidence base on the current status of small scale water supplies • Water safety plans • Networking and sharing of experience
  24. 24. • Invited Member of European Commission Peer Group – Best Practices Guidance Document on a risk assessment for small water supplies
  25. 25. Scotland and Malawi Working Together• Attended 2nd All Africa Environmental Health Congress in May 2010 – Scotland, Malawi and Uganda hosted session on Water Safety Plans• Visited drinking water systems – Reservoir – Treatment works – Distribution systems• Better understood application of WSP in Malawi
  26. 26. Reservoir
  27. 27. Water Treatment Works
  28. 28. A Village Tap
  29. 29. Village Borewell
  30. 30. Rural Village
  31. 31. The Future - Ongoing CollaborationScotland to Malawi• Provision of templates for WSP• Provision of information• Ongoing technical supportMalawi to Scotland• Feeding back of experiences in implementing WSP• Feeding back ideas and improvements to continually improve Scottish WSP model
  32. 32. Thanks for Listening!