Best Practice in the field: setting the scenePresentation Transcript
Best Practice in the Field: setting the scene Dr Samantha Ross Programme Director Link Community Development
• How are we doing in our support of education in developing countries?• The challenges faced• Quality v’s Access• How to improve quality – Teacher Training – Measuring impact – Inclusion – Gender equality / community participation• Suggestions for ‘Best Practice’
MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 2 Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to completeProgress: • 49 percent of developing countries (55 countries) are on target • 34 percent (38 countries) are close to being on targetBut:• Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia are home to the vast majority of children out of school (77 million out of school in 2009).• Inequality thwarts progress towards universal education.• 17 percent (19 countries) are far behind the targetAmong the low-income countries, 3 countries have achieved the goal or are on target: Myanmar, Tajikistan, Tanzania (2012)
Tanzania • Enrolment 95.5% (2010) BUT ... • 4266 primary schools (2010) = 355% increase since 2001 • 500 billion TZS to 2 trillion TZS = (£750 million) HakiElimu 2010
• Uwezo (2011) results show: •Just over 1/4 can read Std 2 level Kiswahili •Only 1/3 perform Std 2 level maths On completion of primary school •only 3/4 read Std 2 level Kiswahili •only 1/2 read Std 2 level English (language of secondary and higher level education, government, judiciary, mass media). UWEZO 2011
Challenges exacerbated by high enrolment levels• Available resources do not match learner numbers: – High Teacher-Pupil ratio – High Pupil-Book ratio – Lack of trained teachers – Poor infrastructure – High level of drop-outs and repetition (inefficient) Classroom in Malawi with 314 pupils to 1 teacher
• Can be problematic to equate success in achieving MDG 2 as a measure of Best Practice in Education.• MDG 2 focuses on access – bums on seats.• Ask ourselves “Is it acceptable that a child can complete a full course of primary education and still not be able to adequately read or do maths”?• Need to consider the quality of the education and the learning outcomes?
Defining ‘quality’ in education“ Education should allow “Relevant, appropriate, children to reach their participatory, flexible,fullest potential in terms of cognitive, emotional and inclusive, protective.” creative capacities.” (Save the Children 2010) (UNESCO 2005) “Promote learners capacity, confidence, curiosity, inquiry and creativity.” (HakiElimu 2010)
Examples of Best Practice How can we support quality? • Teacher Training • Community engagement • Accurately measure performance/ impact • Include all
Improve-it Framework, BOND, NIDOS, 2012
What is Best Practice in the field? • Holistic – access and quality • Sustainable – beyond input of donor • Addresses government priorities and local contexts (strong needs analysis involving governments and communities) • Long-lasting and far reaching impact (value for money and resources)
Examples of Best Practice Examples of Best Practice• FAWE – girls education, aligned with government policies, long-term changing of cultural mind-sets• Children of Songea – capacity build a local organisation to support orphans to attain a quality education• Link Community Development – supports governments (national and local) and communities to evaluate school performance enabling better targeting of resources to deliver a better quality eductaion.