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  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. History of the country The history of Serbia, as a country, begins with the Slavic settlements in the Balkans, established in the 6th century in territories governed by the Byzantine Empire Through the centuries, the Serbian realm evolved into a Kingdom (1217), then an Empire (1345), before the Ottomans annexed it in 1540. In 1804 the Serbian Revolution began, resulting in the liberation of Serbia. In 1918, Yugoslavia was established as a confederation of South Slavic nations. In 1991, Yugoslavia was dissolved, with Serbia and Montenegro continuing the federation. As of 2006, Serbia exists under the name of "Republic of Serbia". Serbia achieved its current borders after World War II, when it became a federal unit within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia in a series of wars in the 1990s, Serbia once again became an independent state on 5 June 2006, following the breakup of a short-lived union with Montenegro. 2 Serbia under the Vlastimirović dynasty The Serb Archonty c. 850.
  3. 3.  Stefan Dušan proclaimed the Serbian Empire in 1346. During Dušans rule, Serbia reached its territorial, political and economical peak, proclaiming itself as the successor of the Byzantine Empire, and indeed was the most powerful Balkan state of that time. 3
  4. 4.  Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two uprisings in 1804 (led by Đorđe Petrović – Karađorđe) and 1815 (led by Miloš Obrenović), although Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade, until 1867. The Turkish Empire was already faced with a deep internal crisis without any hope of recuperating. Serbia in World War I  Despite its small size and population of 4.6 million, Serbia had the most effective manpower mobilization of the war, and had a highly professional officer corps. It called 350,000 men to arms, of whom 185,000 were in combat units.[27] However the casualties and expenditure of munitions in the Balkan Wars left Serbia depleted and dependent on France for supplies. AustriaSerbia in World War II 1941–1944 invaded twice in 1914 and was turned back. On 6 April 1941 Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria invaded Yugoslavia, and the Luftwaffe bombed Belgrade for 3 days killing 17,000 people. Belgrade was captured by German forces on 13 April 1941, and four days later on 17 April 1941 the Royal Yugosavian Army surrendered unconditionally. Acting upon advice and with a heavy heart, King Peter II left the country to seek Allied support.
  5. 5. Geography of Serbia Serbia is landlocked country located in the Balkans (a historical and geographical region of southeastern Europe) and in the Pannonian Plain (a region of central Europe). It shares borders with Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, and Albania. It is landlocked, although access to the Adriatic is available through Montenegro, and the Danube River provides shipping access to inland Europe and the Black Sea. The most significant mountains in Serbia are: 1. Divčibare 2. Tara 3. Zlatibor 4. Kopaonik 5. Brezovica 6. Fruška GoraThe highest peak in Serbia is Đeravica on Prokletije(2,656 m) in Kosovo.  Climate of Serbia is moderate continental with a diversity on local level, caused by geographic location, relief, terrain exposition, presence of river and lake systems, vegetation, urbanization etc. Proximity of the mountain ranges of Alps, Carpathians, Rhodopes, as well as Adriatic Sea and Pannonian plain affect the climate. Location of river 5 ravines and plains in the northern area of the country enable occasional deep southward protrusion of polar air masses on winters, while hot Saharan air often intrudes over the Mediterranean Sea on summers.
  6. 6.  National parks: 1. Fruška Gora (250 km²) 2. Kopaonik (120 km²) 3. Tara (220 km²) 4.Đerdap (Iron Gate) (640 km²) 6
  7. 7. People, social structure, settlement Serbs (Срби, Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. They are also a significant minority in the Republic of Macedonia. A Serbian diaspora dispersed people of Serbian descent to Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the United States, Canada and Slovenia.Nationality Serbs form a majority of 82.86% of the population, followed by Hungarians 3.91%, 1.82% Bosniaks, Roma 1.44%, 1.08% Yugoslavs, Croats, 0.94%, 0.92% Montenegrins, Albanians 0, and 82% of Slovaks, Vlachs, Romanians, Macedonians, Muslims, Bulgarians, Bunjevci, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Gorani, Germans, Russians, Czechs and others. Language Formal / official language is Serbian. In addition to Serbian Vojvodina official / official languages ​are Hungarian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian, Ruthenian and Montenegro (in the municipality of Mali Lošinj). In Kosovo and Metohija official languages ​are Serbian, Albanian Religion 7  The largest religion is Orthodox Christianity, followed by Muslims (Sunnis), Roman Catholics, Protestants and atheists.
  8. 8. Political system, administrative Anthem of the Republic of Serbia is the old anthem of the former Kingdom of Serbia "God of Justice", with slightly altered lyrics. The coat of arms of the Republic of Serbia coat of arms from the time of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1882. and contains two- headed white eagle with a red shield on the chest where there is a white cross with four symbols C (Serbian cross), and over the heads of an eagle with a crown Nemanjić. The Republic of Serbia is the National tricolor flag that is horizontally placed with the colors: red, blue and white. In addition to National, State, and there is a flag which is basically the same as with the folk on a blue field with a small The coat of arms of the emblem of the Republic of Serbia Republic of Serbia, The current president of Serbia, Tomislav Nikolic, who won is identical to the former the presidential election in 2012. Kingdom of Serbia coat of arms. Justice in the Republic of Serbia is the third part of the government in addition to the legislative and executive powers, and therefore it is not subject to the legislative and executive branches. The judiciary in Serbia is divided into: general jurisdiction courts and courts of special jurisdiction The courts of general jurisdiction: 8 The Supreme Court of Cassation courts of Appeal Higher courts Flag The basic courts (court record)
  9. 9. Serbian border9
  10. 10. Economy of Serbiao In recent years, Serbia has seen an increasingly swift foreign direct investment trend, including metal processing industry US Steel, building material industry Lafarge, food and beverages industry Carlsberg, Coca Cola, Nestle, textile industry Golden Lady, Pompea, leather industry Progetti Company, Falc East, ICT Industry Microsoft and Siemens. By countries, most cash investments in 2005-2009 period came from Austria ($2.68bn), Greece ($1.62bn), Norway ($1.55bn), Germany ($1.30bn),[and Italy ($0.95bn), while major investor countries also include Slovenia, Netherlands, Russia and France. The actual amount of investments from countries such as the United States and Israel are significantly higher than the official figure due to their companies investing primarily through European affiliates. Macroeconomic trends GDP Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 GDP (USD Billions) 8.7 11.4 15.1 19.5 23.7 25.2 29.3 39.0 47.7 42.8 43.6 46.2 48.5 53.1 GDP growth rate 5.3% 5.6% 3.9% 2.4% 9.3% 5.4% 5.2% 6.9% 5.5% -3.0% 1.0% 1.6% 0.5% 3.0% GDP Per Capita (USD) 1152 1524 2012 2613 3169 3391 3958 5277 6684 5808 5897 6240 6539 7136 GDP (PPP) per capita (Geary-Khamis $) 5655 6100 6468 6786 10 7598 8315 8928 9722 10821 10635 10897 11364 12121 13004 Source: IMF [20]
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. Serbian Armed Forces The Serbian Armed Forces (Serbian: Bojcka Србије / Vojska Srbije) are the armed services of Serbia. They consist of the Serbian Army (includes River Flotilla on the Danube) and the Serbian Air Force and Air Defence. The armed forces are entirely professional and volunteer based. The first military formation in Serbia dates over 1,500 years ago when Vlastimir of Serbia formed the first medieval Serbian state of Raška in the seventh century. Over the following centuries it would evolve into the Serbian Empire, one of the largest states in Europe at the time. Moravian Serbia was governed by Stefan Lazarević who introduced Serbian Armed modern military tactics and firearms to his army however the new Forces technology failed to defeat the superior numbers of the Ottoman Bojcka Србије Empire. The Ottomans had suppressed the formation of a Serbian state Vojska Srbije along with its military from 1540 until 1804, the year of the first Serbian uprising. The 1804 Serbian Revolution, started with a Serbian rebellion against the Ottoman occupation of Serbia. The victories in the battles of Ivankovac, Misar, Deligrad and Belgrade, led to the establishment of the Principality of Serbia in 1817. The subsequent Second Serbian Revolution led to full recognition of Serbian independence, establishment of the Kingdom of Serbia and weakened the Ottoman dominance in the Balkans. The Serbian General Staff is composed of the highest-ranking officers who form the basic strategic command. The current Chief of Staff is Lieutenant General Ljubiša Diković. Tactical and operational command is separated into the branches, consisting of the Army, Air Force and Air Defence, and a Training Command. Serbia abolished conscription on January 1, 2011 12
  13. 13.  The Serbian Armed Forces currently take part in five United Nations peacekeeping missions.[7] The Serbian Medical Corps has participated in the Congo since March 2003.Country Current Mission Number of personnel 1 staff officer, 2 observersCyprus UNFICYP and 6 infantry 2 staff officers, 2 doctors andDR Congo MONUC 4 technicians 3 officers as militaryIvory Coast UNOCI observersLebanon UNIFIL 5 staff officers 4 officers as militaryLiberia UNMIL observers The Serbian Army is the armed forces of defense and head of the armed opposition to military forms of endangering state security. Fundamentals of organizational structure and the numerical size of the Army by the competent public authorities, on the proposal of the Ministry of Defense, depending on the degree of threat, resources, missions, objectives, and international standards. 13
  14. 14. Prehistoryo The oldest traces of human existence, on the ground now in the Republic of Serbia, dated to the time of the last glacial period, about 40,000. BC. The most important sites of this period are caves near the village of Gradac, Jerina below the hill far from Kragujevac and Risovaca to get married in Arandjelovac o At the end of the Ice Age, during the Holocene, large changes in climate and flora and fauna, have led to the formation of human communities that will create one of the most complex praistoriskih culture, culture Lepenski Vir. o Starčevačku culture has replaced the Middle Neolithic Vinča culture, which is named after its location Vinca - Belo Brdo, near Belgrade, on the banks of the Danube and is the most technologically advanced prehistoric cultures in the world. Her late Neolithic sites from the pavement by the namesake village near Prokuplje or Belovode and Belolice near Petrovac, on the basis of the findings found copper, is the Lepenski Vir: oldest European centers of metallurgy, which moves the beginnings of ancestresses, sculptures the Iron Age in the more distant past. from the sanctuary XLIVo The Vinča culture is mlađeneolitsku ranoeneolitsku and culture of Europe (between the first centuries of the fifth millennium BC and the first centuries of the 4th millennium BC). Extending from the middle Tisa River in the north to the south of the Skopje valley and the river Usora and Bosnia in the west to the south of Sofia Basin and included the territory of present-day Serbia, Romania, Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vinca culture was the most technologically advanced prehistoric cultures in the world. The 14 earliest copper metallurgy in Europe comes from the Vinča sites Belovode in eastern Serbia. General Urban Development Plan of Belgrade. Figurine from Vinca
  15. 15. The territorial organization of the Republic of Serbia  Because of the great ethnic, cultural and economic disparities, and to meet and facilitate the exercise of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, in the territory of the Republic of Serbia formed two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina (the administrative center of Novi Sad) Kosovo and Metohija (administrative center: Pristina) These provinces have clearly defined responsibilities for their work and are responsible republican government. Note: By establishing statistical regions in Serbia in 2009. year, part of the territory of the Republic of Serbia, who was outside the autonomous regions are colloquially called Central Serbia. Central Serbia was not a separate administrative- management unit, but was under the direct rule of the Republic. Constitution of 1990. territory of the unified and indivisible. At the same opinion and the Constitution of 2006. year. Republic of Serbia15 Autonomous Province: - Vojvodina - Kosovo
  16. 16. Statistical regions In February 2010. The Serbian parliament has proposed a law that established five statistical regions in the territory of Serbia Srbije.Statistički regions are: Vojvodina Belgrade Šumadija and Western Serbia Southern and Eastern Serbia Kosovo and Metohija 16
  17. 17. Demography Serbs form a majority of 82.86% of the population, followed by Hungarians 3.91%, 1.82% Bosniaks, Roma 1.44%, 1.08% Yugoslavs, Croats, 0.94%, 0.92% Montenegrins, Albanians 0, 82%, followed by Slovaks, Vlachs, Romanians, Macedonians, Muslims, Bulgarians, Bunjevci, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Gorani, Germans, Russians, Czechs, Turks and others. According to the 2002 census. year, which is not done in the entire territory of the Republic of Serbia, as it is not done in the south of Serbia, in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, a census of the territory of the Republic of Serbia had 7,498,001 inhabitants. 52% of the population lives in cities. The percentage of the population is written 96.4% [27] (men 98.9%, women 94.1%). The birth rate is 1.78 children on average each woman. The average length of life of the population of Serbia was 75.3 years (males 71.25, females 77.1). According to the census from 2011. year, this time even that was not conducted in Kosovo and Metohija, and did not include any Albanians from southern Serbia, which it boycotted, the population of Serbia, excluding Kosovo and Metohija was 7,120,666. This represents a decrease of 377,335 from the previous census in 2002. According to a separate list of Kosovo, which was not conducted in northern Kosovo, the Kosovo 2011th 1,733,872 inhabitants lived. It is estimated that in southern Serbia still alive approximately 36,000 Albanians who did not participate in the census, and to live in northern Kosovo has about 68,000 inhabitants. 17
  18. 18. State symbols Anthem of the Republic of Serbia is the old anthem of the former Kingdom of Serbia "God of Justice", with slightly altered lyrics. The coat of arms of the Republic of Serbia is an old coat of arms of the Kingdom of Serbia Obrenovic dynasty in 1882. years and makes it two-headed white eagle with a shield on the chest where they cross and four symbols C and above the eagles head is a crown Nemanjić. Serbia has a national flag with three colors, which is horizontally placed colors: red, blue and white. In addition to National, State, and there is a flag which is basically the same as with the folk-third the length of the run from left to right on a blue field with a small emblem of the Republic of Serbia. 18
  19. 19. Policy The current president of Serbia, Tomislav Nikolic, who was defeated in the second round of the 2012 elections. year. After the parliamentary elections on 6th May 2012., Serbia on 24 July 2012. Lists won coalition governments move Serbia, gathered around the Serbian Progressive Party, the list centered around the Socialist Party of Serbia, the United Regions of Serbia, the Serbian Social Democratic Party, the Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak, led by Prime Minister Ivica Dacic. Larger opposition parties in the current session of the Assembly of Serbia: The Democratic Party, the Democratic Party of Serbia and the Liberal Democratic Party. The current President of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia Nebojsa Stefanovic from the SNS. The Republic of Serbia is a member of several international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, the Council of Europe (CoE), the NATO Partnership for Peace, the International Organization for Migration, the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Advocates for accession to the European Union, the candidate has received the 2012th 19 Tomislav Nikolic, the President of the Republic of Serbia.
  20. 20. Literatureo Start of Serbian literacy is linked to the activity of brothers Cyril and Methodius in the Balkans. There are monuments of Serbian literacy from the early 11th century, written Glagolitic. Back in the 12th century, there are texts written in Cyrillic. From this epoch is the oldest Serbian Cyrillic book editorial, Gospel Zahum prince Miroslav, brother of Stefan Nemanja. Miroslav Gospel is the oldest and most beautifully illustrated books Serbian medieval times. During the Turkish rule in Serbia, is developing oral lyric and epic literature. In the era of national revival, in the first half of the 19th century Vuk Stefanović Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian national language and reformed the Serbian language and spelling. The foundations were laid by the Serbian literature of recent times. The most important Serbian poets 19th century were Branko Radicevic, John Doe Njegos, Laza Kostic, Djura Jaksic and Jovan Jovanovic Dragon. In the 20th century has been given to fiction writers: Ivo Andric, Isidora Sekulic Milos Crnjanski, Mesa Selimovic, Dobrica Cosic, Danilo Kis, Aleksandar Tisma, though there are valuable poetic achievements: Milan Rakic, Jovan Ducic, Desanka Maksimovic, Miodrag Pavlovic, Miroslav Antic, Branko Miljkovic and Vasko Popa. 20 Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic
  21. 21. World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO in Serbia 1979 - City of Stari Ras monastery, and Sopocani Peters Church (the oldest church in Serbia) 1986 - Abbey Studenica 2004 - Decani Monastery 2006 - Monastery of Gracanica, Pec Patriarchate and the Church of the Virgin Ljeviška 2007 - Felix Imperial Palace in Romuliana Gamzigrad Conditions for the development of science and education in Serbia did not exist during the Ottoman rule. The first attempt at establishing a national school system was the Great School in 1808, backed Serbs from Austria. Only during the period 1835-1878. Education leads to institutionalization. Great School was opened in 1863 and was transformed into the University 1905th Founding institutions of the National Museum (1844) and the Society o Serbian Letters (1841), which evolved into the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the generated conditions for doing science organized. In Austria, the Serbs organized the Serbian nut (1826) as a cultural institution. He later moved its headquarters from Budapest to Novi Sad. Conditions in Austria were considerably more favorable for the development of the Serbian education and science. Apart from them, many Serbian scientists have worked and worked abroad. Such are, for example Mihajlo Pupin and Nikola Tesla. During the second half of the 20th century in Serbia opened the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in 21 Vinca Institute and Engineering "Mihajlo Pupin". These are now the two most important scientific institutes in the country.
  22. 22. Monastery Studenica22
  23. 23. Felix Imperial Palace in Romuliana Gamzigrad23
  24. 24. Monastery of Gracanica, Pec Patriarchate and the Church of the Virgin Ljeviška24
  25. 25. Decani Monastery25
  26. 26. City of Stari Ras monastery, and Sopocani Peters Church26