Railroads

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Railroads

  1. 1. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Railroad permanent road having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid on a roadbed and providing a track for cars or equipment drawn by locomotives or propelled by self-contained motors </li></ul><ul><li>Age a period of time dominated by a central figure or prominent feature </li></ul>
  2. 2. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Time period when locomotives pulling cars down a rail was a central feature of life </li></ul>
  3. 3. Age of Railroads <ul><li>History Of Railroads </li></ul>
  4. 4. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Roads of rails called Wagonways were being used in Germany as early as 1550. These primitive railed roads consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads. Wagonways were the beginnings of modern railroads. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1776, iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts. Wagonways evolved into Tramways and spread though out Europe. Horses still provided all the pulling power. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Age of Railroads <ul><li>The invention of the steam engine was critical to the invention of the modern railroad and trains. In 1803, a man named Samuel Homfray decided to fund the developement of a steam-powered vehicle to replace the horse-drawn carts on the tramways. Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) built that vehicle, the first steam engine tramway locomotive. On February 22, 1804, the locomotive hauled a load of 10 tons of iron, 70 men and five extra wagons the 9 miles between the ironworks at Pen-y-Darron in the town of Merthyr Tydfil, Wales to the bottom of the valley called Abercynnon. It took about two hours. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1821, Englishman, Julius Griffiths was the first person to patent a passenger road locomotive. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Age of Railroads <ul><li>In September, 1825, the Stockton & Darlington Railroad Company began as the first railroad to carry both goods and passengers on regular schedules using locomotives designed by English inventor, George Stephenson. Stephenson's locomotive pulled six loaded coal cars and 21 passenger cars with 450 passengers over 9 miles in about one hour. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Peter Cooper was an inventor, manufacturer, and philanthropist from New York City who built the Tom Thumb locomotive. </li></ul><ul><li>. The Tom Thumb was the first American-built steam locomotive to be operated on a common-carrier railroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Cooper also obtained the very first American patent for the manufacture of gelatin (1845). In 1895, Pearl B. Wait, a cough syrup manufacturer, bought the patent from Peter Cooper and turned Cooper's gelatin dessert into a prepackaged commercial product, which his wife, May David Wait, renamed &quot;Jell-O.&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 8. Age of Railroads <ul><li>First U.S. Railway Chartered to Transport Freight and Passengers February 28, 1827 On February 28, 1827, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad became the first U.S. railway chartered for commercial transport of passengers and freight. There were skeptics who doubted that a steam engine could work along steep, winding grades, but the Tom Thumb, designed by Peter Cooper, put an end to their doubts. Investors hoped a railroad would allow Baltimore, the second largest U.S. city at the time, to successfully compete with New York for western trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The first railroad track in the United States was only 13 miles long, but it caused a lot of excitement when it opened in 1830. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Railroads before the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>1856 Railroads extended to the Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>1859 Railroads spanned the Mississippi railroad </li></ul><ul><li>1869 Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul>
  10. 10. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads needed Materials: Iron, Coal, Lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads grew Towns </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads opened markets </li></ul>
  11. 11. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Opportunists </li></ul><ul><li>Pullman </li></ul>Inventor. He invented the Pullman Railroad Sleeping Car. His coffin is covered with tar paper and asphalt, sunk in a concrete block and covered with railroad ties and recovered with more concrete. The family thought it was necessary to protect the body from angry railroad workers.                                                                                    
  12. 12. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Opportunists </li></ul><ul><li>Colfax </li></ul>US Vice-President from 1869 to 1873. Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1869, and Republican Congressman from Indiana from 1855-1869.                                                           
  13. 13. Age of Railroads <ul><li>The Grange </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer’s organization founded in 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded government control over Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Land sold to businesses rather than farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed prices </li></ul><ul><li>Different rates </li></ul>
  14. 14. Age of Railroads <ul><li>The Grange Takes action </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored local and state candidates </li></ul><ul><li>1871 Illinois authorizes commission to set rates and prohibit discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Other states follow “Granger Laws” </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads fight back but Supreme Court upholds states right to regulate commerce </li></ul><ul><li>1877 Supreme Court rules states could not regulate Interstate commerce </li></ul>
  15. 15. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Interstate Commerce Act 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Government has right to supervise interstate railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Sets up Interstate Commerce Commission </li></ul><ul><li>1897 Supreme Court does not allow commission to set maximum rates </li></ul>
  16. 16. Age of Railroads <ul><li>Panic of 1893 </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by collapse of railroad industry </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Overbuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses and banks failed </li></ul><ul><li>4 million lost jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad Consolidation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Age of Railroads <ul><li>J.P. Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>Legendary American financier, best known as founder of the banking house of J. P. Morgan & Co., which played a central role in the formation of General Electric Company, United States Steel Corporation, General Motors Corporation, and other major corporate deals of that era. </li></ul>                                                                                                                

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