History Of Personal Computers

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History Of Personal Computers

  1. 1. HISTORY OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS
  2. 2. MANUALLY OPERATED DEVICES <ul><li>The Abacus – aids in counting </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese perfected in 12 th Century </li></ul>
  3. 3. MECHANICAL DEVICES <ul><li>1642 – Pascal designed first gear-driven counting machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called Pascaline – principle behind adding machines for 300 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used series of interlocking wheels and gears to add and subtract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First attempt to make tax collection easier </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. MECHANICAL DEVICES CONT’D <ul><li>1670 – German mathematician Leibniz invented calculator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Pascal’s design by adding “crank” on side that simplified repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1834 – English mathematician Babbage proposed an “Analytical Engine” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique design never built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to calculate and store numbers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES <ul><li>1890 – Herman Hollerith, Census Bureau employee perfected machine that tabulated census figures using punched cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple count performed in 6 wks and full statistical data in 2 ½ years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started company called Tabulating Machine Company, later would become International Business Machines (IBM) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES CONT’D <ul><li>1944 – Mark I built by IBM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used combination of electronic signals and mechanical gears to add and subtract large numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most elaborate electromechanical computer ever built </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS <ul><li>1946 – Mauchly and Eckert developed the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First computer without mechanical parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used electronic switching devices called vacuum tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made ENIAC 1000 times faster than Mark I </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS CONT’D <ul><li>1950’s – the transistor replaced the vacuum tube in computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished same work but smaller and faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More reliable and not replaced as often </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS CONT’D <ul><li>1960’s – the integrated circuit, (chip) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin slice of photosensitive silicon, smaller than a dime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic circuits inscribed upon it </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS CONT’D <ul><li>1970’s – Microprocessor was invented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple functions on a single chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers within reach of small businesses and individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution began with manufacturers building complete computer systems called MICROCOMPUTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THEN ALONG CAME STEVE JOBS AND BILL GATES - “The Pirates of Silicon Valley” </li></ul>

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